FANDOM


General MedicalEdit

Medical Equipment On-HandEdit

During the beginning of the Civil War the Rehgimental Surgeons were equipped with a standard kit, consisting of


-Bone saw :

Basically a large saw used to amputate unsalvageable, or infected limbs


-Calipers

A claw like tool used primarilly for extracting bullets from wounds


-Metal probe

self explanatory


-Scissors

self explanatory


-Surgical needles:

self explanatory


-Suture material:


A medical device that doctors, embalmers, and surgeons use to hold skin, internal organs, blood vessels and all other tissues of the human body together after they have been severed by injury, incision or surgery. They must be strong so that they do not break, non-toxic, hypoallergenic (to avoid adverse reactions in the body), and flexible (so they can be tied and knotted easily). In addition, they must lack the so called "wick effect", which means that sutures must not allow fluids to penetrate the body through them from outside, which could easily cause infections


-Forceps:

An instrument resembling a pair of pincers or tongs, used for grasping, manipulating, or extracting, especially such an instrument used by a surgeon.


-Scalpals :

Surgical blade used for making incisions


-Fleams:


These instruments with their triangular shaped blades were designed to be placed over the vein (most commonly the jugular or saphenous) and struck with a fleam stick. This would ideally result in a rapid penetration of the vein with minimal risk to the operator and minimal dissection of the subcutaneous tissues. This latter point would have been considered important in minimizing the formation of a dissecting hematoma. Once the desired blood was drained from the patient the operator would place a pin through the edges of the incision. A figure eight of tail hair or thread would then be placed over the pin to retain closure.[4] Statements from Mayhew in his 1864 treatise would indicate that the perceived benefits of these procedures were coming into great question in the later half of the 19th century for all conditions except laminitis.




Common practices Surgeons also used during the civil war, were the use of maggots to eat away dead flesh and the application of leeches to help bleed wounds/draw out bad blood.

Surgeons were also accomapnied by an orderly who in turn carried a medical knapsack containing a limited supply of anaesthetics, styptics, stimulants, and anodynes, and material for primary dressings. This hospital knapsack had been recommended for adoption by an army board in 1859; it was made of light wood, 18 inches in height, 15 inches wide, and 7½ inches deep, but subsequently wicker-work, covered with canvas or enamelled cloth, was substituted for the wood; its weight when filled was 18 pounds. This knapsack (FIG. 425) was in general use in the first year of the way and served an excellent purpose. In 1862 it was changed for what was known as the new regulation knapsack, in which the arrangement and character of the supplies were modified. The new pattern was 16 inches high, 12½ inches wide, and 6 inches deep; the contents were packed in drawers, which were more accessible than in the old style and less liable to become disarranged or broken.(1) The weight when packed was nearly 20 pounds. (FIG. 426). Notwithstanding its convenience and general adaptability it was too heavy and cumbrous to be carried by the Surgeon himself, and, when entrusted to other hands, was liable, in the vicissitudes of battle, to be lost. In the early part of 1863 Medical Inspector R. H. Coolidge, U. S. A.. arranged a field case or companion(2) (FIG. 427) to take the place of the knapsack. It was something after the plan of the one used in the British service, and was intended to be carried by the Surgeon himself, if necessary. Fig 427 Surgeon's Field Companion.


The "companion" is a leather case 13 inches long, 6 inches wide, and 7½ inches deep; it is supported by a strap passing over the shoulder, and is provided with a waist strap to steady it when carried.

The hospital medicine chest, mess-chest, and bulky hospital supplies were transported in wagons of the supply train and were often inaccessible when required. To obviate this inconvenience panniers were provided containing the most necessary medicines, dressings, and appliances; they were designed to be carried on the backs of pack-animals, but were found to be inconveniently heavy to be transported in this manner, and were more generally carried in one of the ambulance wagons and filled from the medicine chest as required. FIGS. 428, 429 represent the pannier arranged for army use by Dr. Squibb, of Brooklyn, N. Y.; it consists of a wooden box strongly bound with iron, 21 1/8 inches in length, 11 5/8 inches in breadth, and 11 3/8 inches in depth; it weighs, when filled, 88 pounds. The medicines are well packed in japanned tin bottles and boxes, and room is left for an adequate supply of dressing material. The pannier had two compartments.(1) FIG. 429 Upper Tray of Medicine Pannier.

(1) The contents of the knapsack were: One piece of white wax, 8 oz. simple cerate, 12 oz. chloroform, 5 yds. adhesive plaster, 2 yds. isinglass plaster, 1 oz. persulphate of iron, 100 compound cathartic pills, 150 blue mass pills, 150 opium pills, 100 opium and camphor pills, 150 quinine pills, 8 oz. aromatic spirit of ammonia, 16 oz. brandy, 4 oz. laudanum, 10 bandages, 10 binder's boards, 4 oz. charpie, 2 medicine glasses, 1 (spirit) lamp, 12 oz. lint, 1 box matches, 1 paper of pins, 1 spool of surgeons' silk, 4 pieces of sponge, 4 (Dunton's) field tourniquets. 2 spiral tourniquets, 1 piece of tape, 1 spool of lead wire, 1 spool of silver wire, and 1 spatula. (2) The contents of the Surgeon's Companion were; 6½ oz. chloroform, 2 oz. fluid extract of ipecacuanha. 2 oz. fluid extract of ginger. 2 oz. solution of persulphate of iron, 24 oz. of whiskey, 2 oz. tincture of opium, 144 compound cathartic pills, 144 colocynth and ipecacuanha pills, 144 sulphate of quinine pills, 144 opium pills, 1 yard isinglass plaster, a medicine cup, scissors, teaspoon, pins, thread, 4 oz. lint, a towel, 2 doz. bandages, muslin, and corks. Fig. 428 Medicine Pannier

Anesthetic Edit

Surprisingly enough, anesthetics were also heavily used in the war, the most prominent of which was chloroform. "The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion. (1861-65.) --Part III, Volume II, Chapter XIII. Anaesthetics" It was impracticable to determine the total number of cases in which anaesthetics were employed during the war, but as near as can be ascertained they were used in no less than eighty thousand (80,000) instances. Time and clerical assistance did not allow of the examination of this enormous number of cases in detail, and in treating of this subject we must confine our remarks to the number of major operations in which the agents used were definitely ascertained. Of eight thousand nine hundred cases chloroform was used in six thousand seven hundred and eighty-four, or 76.2 per cent., ether in one thousand three hundred and five, or 14.7 per cent., a mixture of chloroform and ether in eight hundred and eleven, or 9.1 per cent. These percentages differ somewhat from the percentages given in the preliminary report,(1) where it was stated that chloroform wits used in 60 per cent., ether in 30 per cent., and ether and chloroform in 10 per cent.; but at that time the percentage of the different agents had been principally derived from the reports of general hospitals, and in which ether was frequently used. When, afterwards, the operations performed in the field hospitals were examined, where chloroform was almost uniformly used, the percentage of the cases in which the latter agent was employed increased to 76.2 per cent., as above indicated, while the number of cases in which ether or the mixture of ether and chloroform was used was proportionally decreased. The inestimable value of the use of anaesthetics in military surgery will hardly be denied at this date, although it has been claimed that the effect of anaesthetics in the treatment of shot injuries are deleterious, inasmuch as they add to the depression caused by the shock, and retard union by first intention, and predispose to haemorrhages and pyaemia. It is possible that in two hundred and fifty-four cases in which it was asserted that no anaesthetic was given the surgeons were actuated by such objections, as no reasons have been assigned why anaesthetics were not administered. How far the use of anaesthetics has contributed to the saving of life during the late war it is impossible to say, as we have no statistics to make this comparison. It may be stated, however, that their use has undoubtedly influenced the favorable percentages of mortality after major operations pointed out in different sections of this and the preceding volumes. From the rapidity of its effects, and from the small quantity required--qualities which can only be appreciated at their proper values by the field surgeon when surrounded by hundreds of wounded anxiously awaiting speedy relief--chloroform was preferred by nearly (1) Circular No. 6, War Department, Surgeon General's Office, W all the field surgeons, and their testimony as to its value and efficacy is almost unanimous, although all recommend the greatest care in its administration. It is, perhaps, best to allow the different medical officers to speak for themselves on this subject: Surgeon C. J. Walton, 21st Kentucky, administered "chloroform in every painful operation, but did not keep the patients under its influence longer than was absolutely necessary, withdrawing it as soon as the cutting was completed. While I could not dispense with chloroform, I must protest against the extravagant and indiscreet use of it. It is a most potent agent, and should be used with the utmost caution. In no case were we displeased with its effect." Surgeon B. B. Breed, U. S. V.: "Chloroform was almost universally employed as an anaesthetic, and without bad effect in any case. Whenever practicable, I employed ether in preference to chloroform, preferring, both from personal experience and observation, the delay and discomfort in its administration to the possible danger from the use of the latter. On the field of battle, however, chloroform is the safe and preferable agent." Assistant Surgeon C. Bacon, jr.: "The anaesthetic I have seen used has invariably been chloroform. Among the great number of cases in which I have witnessed its administration I have seen but one death resulting from its use. I have, however, frequently seen cases in which its use required extreme care, and, at times, have been obliged to desist in its administration in cases of great exhaustion consequent upon long-established injuries. I have frequently seen the use of chloroform attended with bad results when improperly administered. As an anaesthetic I think chloroform should be given in prompt and efficient dose. The desired effect being attained, its administration should be discontinued; in this manner less chloroform is required, thereby avoiding to a great extent its toxical effect." Surgeon D. P. Smith, U. S. V.: "I have in every instance but one, in the army, employed chloroform, and in but one case have I had reason to believe its use disastrous. In this instance it was given too profusely by an entirely incompetent person (since then dismissed from the medical corps) while I was amputating at the knee joint. The patient never reacted from the shock, but died about twelve hours subsequently." Assistant Surgeon J. T. Calhoun, U. S. A.: "I have always used chloroform as an anaesthetic, have given it, and have seen it given under my direction, and in the practice of other surgeons in an immense number of cases, and never saw a death from it, or, in army practice, even an alarming symptom. I am inclined to believe that in general practice the chief danger of chloroform is that in its administration care is not taken to let the patient inhale sufficient air with it (a fact often due to the desire to be economical in its use), and the patients die, not from the chloroform, but from the want of oxygen." Surgeon H. S. Hewit, U. S. V.: "Chloroform was used freely without any fatal accident,. But I conceived that those cases did not finally do so well who were kept under its influence for a length of time; and I am of the opinion that when used the patient should be kept under its influence merely long enough to last through the severest part of the operation. I believe that when a patient is kept under its influence for a long time his chances of recovery are thereby lessened." The serious results following the use of chloroform, when "improperly" or "too long" administered, or when administered by "incompetent persons," referred to by several of the operators, will hardly be charged to the agent itself. In the reports of the surgeons in charge of base hospitals, sometimes the use of ether, sometimes of chloroform alone, or a mixture of both, is advocated. The most convenient, and common form of administering anaesthetics was a cloth or paper folded in the shape of a cone, with a sponge in the apex. It was placed at some distance over the nose and mouth of the patient to allow the first inhalations to become diluted with air, and then gradually advanced to the nose until anaethesia was produced, when the inhalation was suspended. The method of Marshall Hall, by placing a double fold of muslin over the mouth and nose of the patient and simply dropping the chloroform on it drop by drop, was found to be tedious, and inoperative in the open air, where many of the operations were performed, owing to rapid evaporation. In the southern armies, where chloroform was scarce, Surgeon J. J. Chisolm, finding that much chloroform was wasted by these methods, employed a flattened cylinder two and a half inches long and one inch wide in its broadest diameter, having in one of its broadest surfaces a perforated plate. Attached to the cover are two nose pieces. When the instrument is not in use these projections can be pressed into the cylinder, thus diminishing the size of the instrument. In the interior of the cylinder is found a piece of sponge, or what is much better, a bent wire, over which is folded a piece of cotton cloth. The chloroform when dropped through the perforated plate is received upon the sponge or folded cloth, which offers an extended surface for evaporation. Fig. 424 CHISOLM'S Inhaler. Spec 4910 It was impracticable to determine the total number of cases in which anaesthetics were employed during the war, but as near as can be ascertained they were used in no less than eighty thousand (80,000) instances. Time and clerical assistance did not allow of the examination of this enormous number of cases in detail, and in treating of this subject we must confine our remarks to the number of major operations in which the agents used were definitely ascertained. Of eight thousand nine hundred cases chloroform was used in six thousand seven hundred and eighty-four, or 76.2 per cent., ether in one thousand three hundred and five, or 14.7 per cent., a mixture of chloroform and ether in eight hundred and eleven, or 9.1 per cent. These percentages differ somewhat from the percentages given in the preliminary report,(1) where it was stated that chloroform wits used in 60 per cent., ether in 30 per cent., and ether and chloroform in 10 per cent.; but at that time the percentage of the different agents had been principally derived from the reports of general hospitals, and in which ether was frequently used. When, afterwards, the operations performed in the field hospitals were examined, where chloroform was almost uniformly used, the percentage of the cases in which the latter agent was employed increased to 76.2 per cent., as above indicated, while the number of cases in which ether or the mixture of ether and chloroform was used was proportionally decreased.
The inestimable value of the use of anaesthetics in military surgery will hardly be denied at this date, although it has been claimed that the effect of anaesthetics in the treatment of shot injuries are deleterious, inasmuch as they add to the depression caused by the shock, and retard union by first intention, and predispose to haemorrhages and pyaemia. It is possible that in two hundred and fifty-four cases in which it was asserted that no anaesthetic was given the surgeons were actuated by such objections, as no reasons have been assigned why anaesthetics were not administered. How far the use of anaesthetics has contributed to the saving of life during the late war it is impossible to say, as we have no statistics to make this comparison. It may be stated, however, that their use has undoubtedly influenced the favorable percentages of mortality after major operations pointed out in different sections of this and the preceding volumes. From the rapidity of its effects, and from the small quantity required--qualities which can only be appreciated at their proper values by the field surgeon when surrounded by hundreds of wounded anxiously awaiting speedy relief--chloroform was preferred by nearlyall the field surgeons, and their testimony as to its value and efficacy is almost unanimous, although all recommend the greatest care in its administration. It is, perhaps, best to allow the different medical officers to speak for themselves on this subject: Surgeon C. J. Walton, 21st Kentucky, administered "chloroform in every painful operation, but did not keep the patients under its influence longer than was absolutely necessary, withdrawing it as soon as the cutting was completed. While I could not dispense with chloroform, I must protest against the extravagant and indiscreet use of it. It is a most potent agent, and should be used with the utmost caution. Surgeon B. B. Breed, U. S. V.: "Chloroform was almost universally employed as an anaesthetic, and without bad effect in any case. Whenever practicable, I employed ether in preference to chloroform, preferring, both from personal experience and observation, the delay and discomfort in its administration to the possible danger from the use of the latter. On the field of battle, however, chloroform is the safe and preferable agent." Assistant Surgeon C. Bacon, jr.: "The anaesthetic I have seen used has invariably been chloroform. Among the great number of cases in which I have witnessed its administration I have seen but one death resulting from its use. I have, however, frequently seen cases in which its use required extreme care, and, at times, have been obliged to desist in its administration in cases of great exhaustion consequent upon long-established injuries. I have frequently seen the use of chloroform attended with bad results when improperly administered. As an anaesthetic I think chloroform should be given in prompt and efficient dose. The desired effect being attained, its administration should be discontinued; in this manner less chloroform is required, thereby avoiding to a great extent its toxical effect." Surgeon D. P. Smith, U. S. V.: "I have in every instance but one, in the army, employed chloroform, and in but one case have I had reason to believe its use disastrous. In this instance it was given too profusely by an entirely incompetent person (since then dismissed from the medical corps) while I was amputating at the knee joint. The patient never reacted from the shock, but died about twelve hours subsequently." Assistant Surgeon J. T. Calhoun, U. S. A.: "I have always used chloroform as an anaesthetic, have given it, and have seen it given under my direction, and in the practice of other surgeons in an immense number of cases, and never saw a death from it, or, in army practice, even an alarming symptom. I am inclined to believe that in general practice the chief danger of chloroform is that in its administration care is not taken to let the patient inhale sufficient air with it (a fact often due to the desire to be economical in its use), and the patients die, not from the chloroform, but from the want of oxygen." Surgeon H. S. Hewit, U. S. V.: "Chloroform was used freely without any fatal accident,. But I conceived that those cases did not finally do so well who were kept under its influence for a length of time; and I am of the opinion that when used the patient should be kept under its influence merely long enough to last through the severest part of the operation. I believe that when a patient is kept under its influence for a long time his chances of recovery are thereby lessened." The serious results following the use of chloroform, when "improperly" or "too long" administered, or when administered by "incompetent persons," referred to by several of the operators, will hardly be charged to the agent itself. In the reports of the surgeons in charge of base hospitals, sometimes the use of ether, sometimes of chloroform alone, or a mixture of both, is advocated.The most convenient, and common form of administering anaesthetics was a cloth or paper folded in the shape of a cone, with a sponge in the apex. It was placed at some distance over the nose and mouth of the patient to allow the first inhalations to become diluted with air, and then gradually advanced to the nose until anaethesia was produced, when the inhalation was suspended. The method of Marshall Hall, by placing a double fold of muslin over the mouth and nose of the patient and simply dropping the chloroform on it drop by drop, was found to be tedious, and inoperative in the open air, where many of the operations were performed, owing to rapid evaporation. In the southern armies, where chloroform was scarce, Surgeon J. J. Chisolm, finding that much chloroform was wasted by these methods, employed a flattened cylinder two and a half inches long and one inch wide in its broadest diameter, having in one of its broadest surfaces a perforated plate. Attached to the cover are two nose pieces. When the instrument is not in use these projections can be pressed into the cylinder, thus diminishing the size of the instrument. In the interior of the cylinder is found a piece of sponge, or what is much better, a bent wire, over which is folded a piece of cotton cloth. The chloroform when dropped through the perforated plate is received upon the sponge or folded cloth, which offers an extended surface for evaporation.



In reference to the propriety of giving alcoholic stimulants prior to the administration of ether and chloroform, the records of the war supply little definite information. They give simply the number of cases in which anaesthesia was induced, and frequently not even the name of the anaesthetic employed. In cases in which the effect of the anaesthetic was believed to have led to a fatal result special reports were made. These special reports throw little light on the question, since they include, in almost equal proportion, cases in which stimulants had, or had not, been administered prior to the inhalation of the anaesthetic. Some surgeons advise the use of stimulants prior to anaesthesia uniformly; others deprecate the practice except in rare cases, and others again discard it altogether. When there is extreme depression, alcoholic stimuli will of course be employed, in conjunction with other restoratives, to bring about reaction. But when the patient is in a fit state to undergo a major operation, a stimulant should not be given with especial reference to the anaesthesia about to be induced, as it would seem that in the practice of surgeons who habitually employed the stimulants the patients were less readily anaesthetized. It would be better to reserve the stimulant as a restorative in the course or on the completion of the operation, that it may aid in reducing reaction instead of retarding the induction of anaesthesia. It has been stated that the nature of the anaesthetic employed was indicated in eight thousand nine hundred cases, viz: chloroform in six thousand seven hundred and eighty-four, ether in one thousand three hundred and five, and chloroform and ether in eight hundred and eleven cases. Of the six thousand seven hundred and eighty-four cases in which chloroform was used, death was ascribed to this agent in thirty-seven, or 5.4 per thousand;(1) of the one thousand three hundred and five cases in which the anaesthesia was in,luted by ether, four deaths, or 3.0 per thousand; and of the eight hundred and eleven cases in which a mixture of chloroform and ether had been employed, two deaths, or 2.4 per thousand, were charged to the anaesthetic. The total number of cases since the close of the war, in 1865, in which anaesthesia was produced, is one thousand two hundred and ten (1,210). Of these chloroform was used in three hundred and fifty-five (355), ether in five hundred and eighty-seven (587), and ether and chloroform in two hundred and sixty-eight (268) cases. In the cases reported previous to the issue of Circular Orders No. 2, Surgeon General's Office, 1876, the data are, like those of the war, very incomplete, and we will therefore confine ourselves to the consideration of the cases reported since the issue of that order. They number five hundred and ninety-seven (597); in one hundred and fifty-seven (157), or 26.3 per cent. of these, chloroform; in one hundred and eight (108), or 18.1 per cent., chloroform and ether; and in three hundred and thirty-two (332), or 55.6 per cent., ether was administered. In three of the cases death was ascribed to the anaesthetic--to chloroform in one, to chloroform and ether in one, and to ether in the third. The smallest quantity of chloroform used to induce anaesthesia was three-fourths of one drachm, of chloroform and ether one drachm, and of ether two drachms; the largest quantity of chloroform ninety-six drachms, of chloroform and ether one hundred and thirty drachms, and of ether two hundred and fifty-six drachms; the average amount of the agents used was chloroform eleven, chloroform and ether thirty-two, and ether fifty-one drachms. The average time in which insensibility was induced by chloroform was nine minutes, by ether and chloroform seventeen minutes, and by ether sixteen minutes, as shown in The rapidity of the effects and the saving in quantity in the use of chloroform, so important to the field surgeon, especially after large battles, is at once apparent. There is hardly any difference in the average time required to produce anaesthesia by ether or by chloroform and ether. Vomiting was recorded in twenty-three (23), or 14.6 per cent., of the one hundred and fifty-seven (157) cases of chloroform; in thirty-two (32), or 29.6 per cent., of the one hundred and eight (108) cases of chloroform and ether; and in ninety-eight (98), or 29.5 per cent., of the three hundred and thirty-two (332) cases of ether,--the relative frequency being nearly the same in the cases in which ether or ether and chloroform was used, and less in the cases of chloroform, as well as less copious: Excitement was likewise reported less frequently in cases in which chloroform was administered than in those in which chloroform and ether or ether was used, the percentages being 28.0 in chloroform, 37.0 in chloroform and ether, and 39.1 in ether; but, as the figures in the table indicate, it seems to have been somewhat more violent in the cases of chloroform narcosis, although in one case in which ether was employed the excitement was so intense that the use of the anaesthetic was abandoned and the operation completed without anaesthesia. Prostration was reported in twenty-one, or 13.3 per cent., of the cases of chloroform; in thirteen, or 12.0 per cent., of the cases of chloroform and ether; and in thirty-seven, or 11.1 per cent., of the cases of ether. In four of the one hundred and fifty-seven cases in which chloroform was used slight disturbance of respiration was noted, and in two cases respiration ceased and the pulse stopped, but life was restored after prolonged efforts. Pulse and respiration were likewise suspended in two instances in which ether and chloroform, and in one in which ether alone, had been used; they also were brought back to consciousness. In three cases death was ascribed to the anaesthetic. A case of death from chloroform is reported by Assistant Surgeon R. Barrett, U. S. A.



Litters Edit

The first removal of the wounded from the battle-field was generally effected by means of hand litters. The number of litters issued during the war exceeded fifty thousand(1) (50,000). From the Purveyor's Office at New York, Brigadier General R. S. Satterlee reports that from April 1, 1861, to August, 1865, sixteen thousand eight hundred and seven (16,807) hand litters were issued. At the Medical Purveyor's Depot at Louisville, from November, 1863, to August, 1865, seven thousand and ninety-eight (7,098) hand stretchers were issued, and Surgeon D. L. Magruder, U. S. A., estimated that four thousand seven hundred and thirty-two (4,732) had been given out before November, 1863. The Medical Purveyor's Office at Philadelphia issued, from January, 1863, to August, 1865, five thousand five hundred and forty-eight (5,548), and the Office at New Orleans, from September, 1864, to the end of the war, eight hundred and thirty-five (835) stretchers.(2) FIG. 436 SATTERLEE or Regulation Hand Litter


In the beginning of the war the Satterlee, or U. S. Regulation litter (FIG. 436), was supplied to the regiments. It weighed twenty-four and one-half pounds and was twenty-seven inches wide. The canvas consisted of two pieces, five feet ten inches long, sewed in the centre with a flat seam, and with a hem on either side seven and one-half inches wide, through which the poles were passed; there was an inch and a half hem on each end; on one end were three tarred rope loops to put over the pins on the cross-bar, The Records of the Property Division of the Surgeon-General's Office show that from 1861 to 1865 fifty-two thousand four hundred and eighty-nine (52,489) litters of various manufacture were purchased and issued to the troops. FIG. 437 Seat Made by Clasping Hands


Extemporaneous modes of conveying wounded from the field of baffle can only be briefly alluded to. Stout sticks or muskets may be passed through the sleeves of a coat, or rolled into the edges of blankets and a litter thus be formed. Hurdles, gates, or ladders, with blankets or straw thrown over them, have made useful stretchers. Poles interlaced with ropes or telegraph wire have been found to answer the purpose of a litter. The editor was once obliged to transport a soldier, wounded in the abdomen, a distance of twelve miles along the narrow bed of a creek filled wit h boulders and obstructions: "I was fortunate enough to find two ash saplings which, with a blanket stretched across, made an improvised litter, on which my patient was borne by relays of men with comparative ease and comfort. At another time a man belonging to a small detachment sent out from a scouting party was wounded in the leg by the accidental discharge of a musket. Finding it impossible to place the man on horseback, and unsafe to detach a small party to seek the mare command, his comrades carried him a distance of about three miles by forming a seat with their bands and arms similar to the chairs made by children in their games (Fig. 437). During the late war I saw a soldier who had been wounded at some distance from his command conveyed to a place of safety by laying him prone across a saddle, the stirrup of one side being sufficiently lengthened to afford support for one foot. The horse with his burden was then led quite a distance. I am familiar with another instance where a man, badly wounded, was conveyed about a three-days' journey in a cot or hammock framed by securing a blanket to two lariat ropes; the ends of the ropes were gathered and carried by his comrades on horseback. All military surgeons know of instances where wounded men have been carried from the battle-field on muskets with an overcoat laid upon them for a bed. Under the urgent demands of neccessity the fruits of ingenuity are sure to come to the rescue." (See Circular No. 9, On the Transport of Sick and Wounded by Pack-Animals, Washington, 1877, p. 27.) and two five-inch drilling loops for pulling the canvas over the poles; at the other end were three eyelet-holes, with a piece of rope three feet long and spliced into one of the holes for fastening the canvas to the pins on the other cross-bar. The poles were made of seasoned red ash, were one and one-half inches in diameter and eight feet nine inches long. Sixteen inches from either end of the poles were wrought-iron bands three-sixteenths of an inch thick and three-fourths of an inch wide, and riveted to the poles as shoulders for the cross-bars to strike against. The cross-bars weighed six and one-fourth pounds; they were made of seasoned white ash, one and one-half inches thick by twenty-four inches long. A piece of wrought-iron, six feet long by one inch wide and one-fourth of an inch thick, was so curved as to form the legs(1) and sockets on either end of the wooden cross-bar for the poles to pass through, and was fastened by two rivets, one at each end; the pin in the centre, on which the canvas was looped, was used as a third. The three pins in each cross-bar were made of half-inch iron, and projected one inch, with heads to keep the loops from slipping off. The shoulder straps weighed one and one-half pounds, were made of leather two inches wide, five feet eight inches long, with a three and one-half inches loop at one end and a buckle at the other end for adjustment on the handles of the stretcher. One objection to the Satterlee litter was its bulk, which seriously interfered with its conveyance in large numbers.

The Halstead(2) litter, a stretcher of lighter and more compact pattern (FIG. 438), soon superseded the Satterlee. It weighed twenty-three and three-fourths pounds and was twenty-three and one-half inches wide; the length of the canvas (unbleached) was five feet eleven inches, being fastened on the outer side of t he rave with six-ounce tacks. The poles were made of seasoned white ash, eight feet long and one and five-sixths inches square, with thirteen inches at one end and twelve inches at the other, extending beyond the canvas, and rounded off for handles. The legs, which were also made of seasoned white ash, were fourteen and one-half inches long, one inch thick, one and seven-eighths inches wide at the top, and tapering to one and three-eighths inches at the bottom. They were fastened to the poles with screw bolts, washers under the heads of the bolts, and rivets through the upper end of the legs to prevent them from splitting. The braces to hold the stretcher open, one (on the under side) at either end, consisted of two pieces of wrought-iron one inch wide by three-eighths of an inch thick; one piece was fifteen inches and the other twelve inches in length, hinged in the centre of the stretcher, the longer one overlapping the shorter three and one-half inches, and, when open, shutting on a bolt or pin, forming a stiff shoulder for the hinge and preventing the stretcher from accidentally closing. The braces were fastened on with heavy screws, with pieces of common hoop iron underneath the braces to prevent them from wearing the wood. The shoulder straps weighed eight ounces, and were made of striped cotton webbing two and one-half inches wide by fifty inches long, with a five-inch loop at one end and a leather strap twenty-two and one-half inches long by one and one-sixth inches wide, with buckle, at the other end to loop around the handles of the stretcher at any length desired. A hair pillow covered with canvas accompanied this stretcher, which (1) Professor LONGMORE in his Treatise on the Transport of Sick and Wounded Troops, London, 1869, p. 129, has probably mistaken the iron feet for yoke pieces, as he speaks of the absence of feet in the litter. (2) In the preliminary report, Circular No. 6, S. G. O., 1865, p. 81, this litter is erroneously called the Smith hand litter; the litter there designated as the Halstead litter was a stretcher issued by the Sanitary Commission. It is to be regretted that these errors have misled Professor LONGMORE, who in his excellent Treatise on the Transport of Sick and Wounded Troops, p. 141, reproduced the wood-cuts from Circular No. 6. gave great satisfaction, and out of the litters (16,807) issued by the New York Purveying Depot twelve thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven (12,867) were of this pattern. FIG. 439 Sanitary Commission Litter.

Of the litter shown in FIG. 439 and known in New York as the Sanitary Commission litter, few were issued; it was too fragile for the hard usage of actual warfare. A drawing of the litter used in the Confederate armies is shown in FIG. 440, and has been copied from Chisolm.(1) Its construction was very simple and, with the exception of the mode of securing the duck cloth, or sacking, to the frame, needs no explanation. "A groove three-quarters of an inch wide and five-eighths of an inch deep is cut out in the length of the frame. The cloth is tacked in this and secured by a lath which fits accurately the groove and which is nailed in, covering the cloth. The tension upon the cloth is not borne by the tacks, but is uniformly supported by the entire lath, and therefore never rips off." FIG. 441 SCHELL'S Litter

A litter to be used as a bedstead was proposed by Assistant Surgeon Henry S. Schell, in 1862, in a letter to Medical Inspector Vollum, U. S. A.: "I beg leave to suggest that the hand litter at present in use be somewhat modified, so that it may be arranged as a bedstead in the hospital tent when it is desirable to have a large number of beds quickly made up. It generally takes a day, perhaps more, to prepare bedsteads, or rather to build them, so that they may be elevated from the damp and uneven surface of the ground. The present stretcher cannot be used to make two rows of beds, with a passage from door to door between them in the usual manner, because of its length. The litter (FIGS. 441, 442) which I would propose is constructed of two parallel bars, each six feet two inches long, connected by a strong canvas, and separated by a jointed iron rod about six or eight inches from each end, somewhat similar to those on the litter now in use. To the ends of each of the parallel wooden bars a shorter one, ten inches long, is joined by a strong hinge placed underneath. This latter bar constitutes the handle when used as a stretcher, or the leg when used as a camp bedstead. It is retained in the upright position by a short iron stay, as seen in the figure. I have long felt the want of such an arrangement when arriving in camp and wishing to pitch the hospital tent immediately. The hinge will be found to last much longer than the canvas. As each ambulance carries two stretchers, a hospital may be improvised from these very readily."

In the last year of the war an order was issued for the construction of a form of litter(1) on wheels (FIG. 443), similar to one used advantageously in the Danish war of 1864, but there are no reports that indicate its practical utility. The modes of carrying wounded men on horse or mule litters during the war have been fully described in Circular No. 9, Surgeon General's Office, March 1, 1877, and we cannot do better than to reproduce, with a few additional remarks, the account given there by the author, the late Surgeon George A. Otis, U. S. Army: "In the Revised Regulations for the Army of the United States for 1861, Paragraph 1298 reads: 'Horse litters may be prepared and furnished to posts whence they may be required for service on ground not admitting the employment of two-wheeled carriages; said litters to be composed of a canvas bed similar to the present stretcher, and of two poles, each sixteen feet long, to be made in sections, with head and foot pieces constructed to act as stretchers to keep the poles apart.' There is no record that these litters were used during the war.(2)

FIG. 444.--United States Army Regulation Two Horse Litter

"During the progress of the late war in this country a number of persons, actuated by motives of patriotism, humanity, or interest, devised and brought to the notice of the War Department forms of conveyance for the sick and wounded in localities impracticable for wheeled vehicles, that were represented as improvements upon existing patterns. Several of these were apparently suggested by the descriptions of Delafield(3) and McClellan(4) of the horse litters and cacolets they had observed in the Crimea. In October, 1861, W. C. H. Waddell forwarded to Secretary Cameron a proposal to construct cacolets and litters for army use, accompanied by drawings (FIGS. 446, 447) (1) GURLT (E.), Militär-chirurgische Fragmente, Berlin, 1864, p. 6. NEUDÖRFER (J.), Handbuch der Kriegschirurgie, etc., Leipzig, 1864. (2) Professor T. LONGMORE, in his excellent Treatise on the Transport of Sick and Wounded Troops, London, 1869, p. 292, thus refers to this form of litter: "It is necessary to notice another form of sick-transport litter issued for use in the early part of the late war in the United States, in which, instead of two litters being suspended across one horse or mule, one litter was suspended between two horses. This is a very ancient form of litter in Europe. Frequent notices of it occur, showing its common use on occasions of state and ceremony, as well as its employment for the carriage of sick persons, in the records of our own country prior to the introduction of coaches. It seems curious that its use should have been revived in modern times in America." In a note it is added: "This form of litter is referred to as late as the reign of Charles II. A quotation introduced into the first volume of Knight's London, pp. 24 and 25, mentions that 'Major General Skipton, coming in a horse.litter to London when wounded, as he passed by the brew house near St. John street, a fierce mastiff flew at one of the horses and held him so fast that the horse grew mad as a mad dog: the soldiers were so amazed that none had the wit to shoot the mastiff; but the horse-litter, berne between the two horses, tossed the major-general like a dog in a blanket.'" (3) Report on the Art of War in Europe in 1854, 1855, and 1856, by Major RICHARD DELAFIELD, Corps of Engineers, from his Notes and Observa-Siena made as a member of a "Military Commission to the Theatre of War in Europe," Washington, 1860. (4) Report of the Secretary of War, communicating the Report of Captain GEORGE B. McCLELLAN (First Regiment United States Cavalry), one of the officers sent to the Seat of War in Europe in 1855 and 1856, Washington, 1857. FIG. 445 Cacolet of Lawrence, Bradley & Pardee. Spec. 824, SECT. VI, A. M. M. copied from Delafield's report, and suggested some trivial modifications. In November, 1861, Mr. G. Kohler offered to furnish mule litters and chairs of patterns imitated from those used in the Crimea. In July, 1862, three hundred of these litters were purchased. In April, 1862, Surgeon Glover Perin, U. S. A., and Assistant Surgeon Benjamin Howard, U. S. A., reported to Surgeon General C. A. Finley the results of their inspection of cacolets and litters devised by Mr. Charles Proal, of Louisville.(1) Newspaper descriptions, almost textually quoted from Delafield's report, with figures of these appliances, were transmitted. Mr. Proal claimed to have improved upon the French patterns by diminishing the weight and cost of construction. Messrs. Lawrence, Bradley & Pardee, of New Haven, Connecticut, in 1861, applied for a patent for a cacolet of cumbrous pattern, weighing 131 pounds. The chairs could not be detached from the saddle. A sample, figured in the adjoining wood-cut (FIG. 445), was sent, in 1867, to the Army Medical Museum, and is numbered 824 in Section VI. It combines, in an unusual degree, the undesirable qualities of weight, weakness, and inconvenience. On September 25, 1862, a board of officers of the Quartermaster's Department examined cacolets submitted by Dr. Slade Davis, and reported(2) that, as compared with others that had been purchased for the service, the only advantage of this form of cacolet was its lightness. It was thought that those already on hand were as light as was consistent with the requisite degree of strength. Mr. E. P. Woodcock,(3) of New York, in November, 1863, patented a pack-saddle with wooden outriggers from the pommel and cantle for the suspension of litters. By securing litters to the projecting parts by straps, and protecting the sides of the animal by pads, it was designed to carry two patients in the recumbent position. This contrivance was exhibited by the United States Sanitary Commission at the Exposition in Paris in 1867, but met with no more approval abroad than at home. Mr. J. Jones,(4) of New York, in December, 1862, proposed to the Surgeon General of the Army a mule litter for carrying two persons either in a sitting or recumbent position, the litters being designed to serve also as efficient hand stretchers or hospital-beds. The 'exceeding lightness, strength, and simplicity' of these conveyances were insisted on. The saddle with (1) Extract from a communication to Surgeon General C. A. FINLEY, by Surgeon G. PERIN and Assistant Surgeon B. HOWARD, dated Louisville, April 2, 1862: "The undersigned would respectfully state that Mr. CHARLES PROAL, of this city. has submitted to our inspection a saddle ambulance, which has been fairly tested by us in the open field. Its chief excellences, compared with other saddle ambulances, are that it is lighter, is more easily adjusted, and combines both the litter and the chair, both of which can be packed away in a very small compass when the pack-saddle to which they belong is required for other purposes. The weigh, of the entire ambulance, with saddle, etc., is about seventy-four pounds, that of the French being about one hundred and forty-two pounds. The mode of adjustment is such that two litters, two chairs, or one chair and one litter, can be used at the same time, at discretion, each of which may be affixed to or detached from the saddle, while the patient remains undisturbed. The harness appears to be very complete, the breeching and breast-band preventing motion backward or forward, while the surcingle, by being attached to the bottom of each chair or litter, prevents either undue oscillation or shifting which would be otherwise consequent upon any inequality in the weight of the two patients being carried. The price of the ambulance and appurtenances completed is about $50." (2) A board of officers, consisting of Colonel D. H. RUCKER, Quartermaster, Captain J. J. DANA, A. Q. M., and Captain E. E. CAMP, A. Q. M., was convened at Washington, September 25, 1862, to "examine a cacolet to be presented for inspection by Dr. SLADE DAVIS, and to report its opinion of the cacolet, as compared with other patterns which have been purchased for the service. The board reported that "in their opinion the cacolet presented by Dr. SLADE DAVIS possessed an advantage over those furnished by Mr. KOHLER (three hundred in number, all of which are now on ban,l) in lightness only. Those made by Mr. KOHLER are constructed in a strong and desirable manner, and are as light as in consistent with the requisite degree of strength. No call has yet been made, either for those first purchased or for those furnished by Mr. KOHLER, which cost $21,000. We would not recommend the purchase of an additional number from any source." (3) Compare LONGMORE (Treatise on the Traveller, of Sick and Wounded, etc., op. cit., p. 290) : Subject-matter, Index of Patents for Inventions, Washington, 1874, Volume III, p. 1232; and SÉRURIER (Conferences Internationale des Sociétés aux Blessés Militaires des Armées de Terre et de Mer. tenues à Paris, en 1867, T. I, p. 47). (4) Manuscript Records of War Department for 1862. FIG. 446 British Crimean Mule Litter [After WEIR]

two litters, girths, bridle, and other appurtenances weighed only 62 pounds, and could, probably, be reduced to 60 pounds. In September, 1863, a board of medical officers was convened in Washington to examine into the merits of an adjustable ambulance and packsaddle, 'submitted by Spencer, Nichols & Co.' Lightness, strength, simplicity, efficiency, adjustability, and cheapness were the merits claimed for this contrivance.(1) Shortly afterward (December 1, 1863) another medical board assembled in Washington to inspect and report on a mule litter submitted by Messrs. Pomeroy & Co., which was found to possess some good and some objectionable features.(2) In addition to these essays in invention, cacolets and litters were submitted to the Quartermaster's Department that purported to be constructed simply in accordance with drawings in General Delafield's report.(3) August 20, 1861, Messrs. Lutz & Bridget, harness-makers, furnished twenty such sets, with packsaddles and harness. These drawings, which are copied, of a reduced size. in FIGS. 446 and 447, though prepared by so distinguished an artist as Professor Weir, do not accurately represent the mechanical details of either the French or British Crimean litters and cacolets, and the ambulance equipments made in imitation of them did not prove to be of utility. Early in the war, however, probably as early as May, 1861, the Quartermaster's Department had purchased a number of cacolets and mule litters of the pattern used in the French army, and in July, 1861, engaged Tiffany & Co., of New York, to construct others, and employed a French agent to give instruction in the (1) The board, consisting of Surgeon T. H. BACHE, U. S. V., Surgeon C. ALLEN, U. S. V., and Assistant Surgeon W. Moss, U. S. V., reported, September 16, 1863: 1. That the cacolets weighed 55½ pounds, and the saddle-girths and other equipment 38 pounds; 2. The saddle-tree was Jointed so that by turning screws it could be adapted to animals of different sizes; 3. As to simplicity, the saddle was provided with projecting crane-like supports of hickory, covered with raw-hide, which were connected either with s fiat framework of hickory for packs, or with litters for patients; 4. As to strength, the saddle easily sustained two barrels of flour; but when two soldiers, one of them a heavy man, mounted on the litters there was a "slight yielding;" but the board considered the litters "strong enough to bear any load that a horse or mule could carry." Finally, the board considered the pattern submitted as "comfortable as such a conveyance can be made." (2) The board consisted of Medical Inspector J. M. CUYLER, U. S. A., Surgeon O. A. JUDSON, U. S. V., and Assistant Surgeon C. A. McCALL, U.S.A. The report is unaccompanied by a description or drawing of the conveyance, but states that it was simple in construction, with unusual capacity for providing for the comfortable carriage of two wounded men. Some modifications were suggested, such as strengthening the attachments of the litters by substituting chains for straps; of supplying means for rendering their framework rigid, so that they might be used temporarily as stretchers; of arranging that they might be detached from the saddle; of having rings and books for attaching necessary articles to the pack.caddie, and particularly a vessel for water. The board was unwilling to decisively approve of the conveyance until these alterations had been effected and a trial in actual service had been successfully made. 3) DELAFIELD (R.) (Report on the Art of War in Europe, 440, Washington, 1860, p. 73) makes the following observations on mule litters and cacolets: "The requisites for an ambulance should be such as to adapt it to the battle-field, among the dead, wounded, and dying; in plowed fields, on hill-tops, mountain slopes, in siege batteries and trenches, and a variety of places inaccessible to wheel carriages, of which woods, thick brush, and reeky ground are frequently the localities most obstinately defended, and where most soldiers are left for the care of the surgeons. These difficulties were felt in a great degree by all the armies allied against Russia in the siege of Sebastopol, and the consequence was that the English, French, and Sardinian armies adopted finally, in part or altogether, pack-mules carrying litters or chairs. The careful and sure-footed mule can wind its way over any road or trail, among the dead, dying, and wounded on any battle-field, as well as in the trench and siege battery. It required but suitable arrangements to support the wounded from the mule's or horse's back to attain the desired object, and this the allied armies finally accomplished and put in practice. The merit of the plan renders It worthy our consideration, particularly so in our Rocky Mountain and other distant expeditions." Further on he remarks: ". . . I witnessed the transport of one hundred and ninety-six sick and wounded French soldiers, with their arms, accoutrements, and knapsacks, on the route from the Tchernaya to Kamiesch Bay, on these litters and chairs. Fifty-two-of them were on twenty-six mules in the horizontal litters, and one hundred and forty-four seated in chairs on seventy-two other mules. A driver was provided for every two mules or four wounded men. The appearances, with such an examination as I gave the whole equipment, were so favorable as to recommend it for trial in our service. To make the system better understood I annex two additional figures (FIGS. 446 and 447), showing the animal, the equipment, and position of the soldier, for which compilation and drawing I am indebted to Professor WEIR." FIG. 447 British Crimean Cacolet [After WEIR]

use of these cacolets and litters, and purchased animals specially adapted for their transport. The Quartermaster General has remarked that these horses and mules were gradually appropriated as draft animals, and that the litters and cacolets were, for the most part, condemned as unserviceable. The French litters and cacolets were what is known as the old pattern, such as the French used in Algeria and the Crimea. They are figured in the surgical report in Circular 6, S. G. O., 1865, at page 82. Surgeon General Longmore correctly observes (op. cit., p. 291) that 'the same drawings may also be seen in Chapter XX of M. Legouest's Traité de Chirurgie d'Armée, Paris, 1863, pp. 968-9.' I ventured to copy the drawings because they well represented the identical cacolets and litters issued in our army, and through an inadvertence, which must be conceded to be unusual in me, I neglected to acknowledge my indebtedness to my honored friend and master. I trust this explanation will convince him and every one that I had no surreptitious design in using the cuts. In the mule litters and cacolets now issued in the French army there are improvements providing for making the sections of the litter rigid, so that it can be used temporarily as a hand-stretcher, for reduction in weight, and for greater compactness in packing.(1) The mule chairs and litters now issued by the British Royal Carriage Department are lighter and more convenient than those used in the Crimea. I take the liberty of copying Surgeon General Longmore's drawings of the cacolet (FIG. 448) and litter (FIG. 449) now employed in the British service.(2) The only reference I find of the actual employment in battle, during the late war in this country, of horse litters or cacolets, is made by Professor F. H. Hamilton. He mentions that, at the battle of Fair Oaks, May 31, 1862, when he was Medical Director of the Fourth Army Corps, eight pack-saddles, provided FIG. 448 British Mule Chair or Cacolet, Open For Use and Packed For Traveling. [After LONGMORE.]

(1) M. BOUDIN states (Système d'ambulances des armées Française et Anglaise, 1855, p. 35) that the cacolet weighed something over 19 kilogrammes the pair. The pair in the Army Medical Museum weighs 40 pounds. Including the pack-saddle, Professor LONGMORE says a pair weighed in the Crimea was found to be 89 pounds and 12 ounces. (2) The weight of a pair of English litters used in the Crimea was 138 pounds 12 ounces without the pack-saddle. The present pattern weighs 84 pounds without bedding or pack-saddle. With palliasses and pack-saddle the weight is 167 pounds. with a litter on one side and a cacolet on the other, were provided as a part of the ambulance outfit of that corps, and were used only on the first day of the battle, proving utterly unserviceable.(1) Notes are found in the War Department of the transmission, August 26, 1861, of twelve of the mule litters and cacolets made by Tiffany & Co., to the army in the Shenandoah Valley, commanded by General Banks. A supply of litters and cacolets was provided for the advance of the Army of the Potomac from Yorktown toward Rich-mend, in May, 1862. There were forty, at least, in store at White House,(2) but there were no trained animals to bear them. Moreover, the subordinate quartermasters and medical officers appear generally to have regarded the experiment with little favor. Medical Director Triplet, who, in 1859, in a report on the needs of the ambulance service, had urged the importance of supplying horse litters to troops serving in regions impracticable for wheeled carriages, made several efforts to secure suitable equipment and proper animals(3) for this purpose, but without much success. His successor also, Medical Director Letterman, entertained similar views, in correspondence with the opinions of European authorities; and persevering, though ill-arranged, efforts were made to give the system a fair trial. In July, 1862, the Surgeon General requested the Quartermaster's Department to provide three hundred litters, and this number was purchased of Mr. G. Kolder. (4) Prior to the battle of Antietam Medical Director Letterman asked for a supply of mules equipped with cacolets and litters.(5) The Quartermaster's Department had an ample supply of the French patterns, which were beyond all question the best that had been devised at that time. But there were no trained animals to bear them, and few, if any, available skilled packers. September 1, 1862, the Surgeon General requested that a hundred mule litters should be sent to Medical Inspector R. H. Coolidge. A few weeks after the battle of Antietam a hundred and fifty mules were sent to the Army of the Potomac for ambulance service, but they were so unruly that it was thought unwise to pack them with their equipment, and the litters and cacolets were sent along in wagons, and, as far as can be learned, never found their way to the backs of the mules.(6) Little could be anticipated from such essays. In November, 1862, the Surgeon General (1) HAMILTON (F. H.) (A Treatise on Military Surgery and Hygiene, 1865, p. 162) : "Just before the battle of Fair Oaks, eight were sent to us for the use of the 4th corps. They were only employed, however, on the first day of the battle. The horses were found to be impatient and restless under them, and six of the eight were soon broken and rendered unfit for use. Mules are better than horses for this purpose; they are not so high, and are less restive under the pressure of heavy weights upon their backs; but even mules require to be trained especially to this kind st' service before they can be rendered useful or safe." (2) From a telegraphic order of May 27, 1862, recorded on the files of the War Department, and addressed from the Headquarters of the Army of the Potomac, by Lieutenant Colonel J. A. HARDIE, to Colonel S. VAN VLIET, Quartermaster, at White House on the Pamunkey, it appears that a certain number of cacolets were at that depot prior to the battle of Fair Oaks. The dispatch reads: "The Commanding General directs that you furnish the forty cacolets at the White House, belonging to the Medical Department, with horses, and report to the Medical Director here the moment they are ready." Doubtless the eight cacolets sent to the Fourth Corps were supplied from this source. (3) March 13, 1862, on receiving the papers regarding Mr. KOHLER'S request for an examination of his litters and cacolets, Medical Director TRIPLER makes the indorsement that: "there are sufficient horse litters for this army in the possession of the Quartermaster's Department. All we want now is horses or mules properly trained to carry them. On April 25, 1862, Dr. TRIPLER stated that there were some 200 or more cacolets furnished, by the Quartermaster's Department, and that he made every effort to have horses trained to carry them with their loads; that orders to that effect were issued by General McClellan, but were not executed. (4) June 17, 1862. Colonel RUCKER advises the Quartermaster General that he has advertised for proposals for mule litters, and that the only proposal received is from Mr. G. KOHLER, and that the litter he proposes to furnish seems to be very high priced: "It is intricate and cumbersome in construction, and, in my opinion, inferior to those now in Captain DANA'S store-house" [the French cacolet and litière]. July 26, 1862, Surgeon General HAMMOND states, in reply to a letter from the Quartermaster General concurring in Colonel Rucker's opinion:."The litter presented by Mr. KOHLER has been examined by myself and a board of officers, who agree that it possesses sufficient merit to entitle it to trial in the field. I therefore request that three hundred of the mule litters presented by Mr. KOHLER be purchased for the use of the army." Quartermaster General MEIGS replies, July 29, 1862, that "inasmuch as the Surgeon General adopts and requests that these litters be constructed, though in the opinion of the Quartermaster's Department they are not as good as those already on band, they will be contracted for under the proposal of Mr. KOHLER. The price bid is understood, as in other cases, to include the whole set, namely: head-stall, harness, saddle, and two litters for each mule." As early as December 9, 1861, this pattern of mule litter had been reported on by a board convened by General McCLELLAN, consisting of Colonel D. H. RUCKER, Surgeon C. H. LAUB, and Surgeon J. R. SMITH, it is presumed unfavorably, as further action was not had at the time. (5) The records of the Property Division of the Surgeon General's Office show that during the period from 1861 to 1865, nine hundred and eighteen horse or mule litters were purchased and distributed by the Medical Department. Of these, 417 were manufactured in the depot at New York, and the rest were purchased from Tiffany & Co., of New York, Wyeth & Brother, of Philadelphia, A. F. Coldeway, Louisville, Ky., and Suite & Eckstein, of Cincinnati, Ohio. (6) In October, 1862, the Surgeon General again made requisition on the Quartermaster's Department for one hundred and fifty mules provided with mule litters, to be mint to Dr. JONATHAN LETTERMAN, Medical Director of the Army of the Potomac. In reference to delay in compliance with this requisition Captain J. J. DANA, A. Q. M., reported October 17, 1862, as follows: "The order was given by me October 3d, immediately on its receipt, for one hundred and fifty mules and litters to be made ready for service. At that time we had no mules sufficiently well broken for the purpose. I directed fifty of the best to be taken from the ambulance train, the litters to be fitted upon them, and the mules drilled daily until they were fit to go into the field. On the 9th of October fifty mules, with litters upon them, were started for Dr. LETTERMAN. Much difficulty was experienced in getting the mules for. ward, as they were. many of them, inclined to lie down, and were otherwise unruly. Among a lot of mules received on the 10th instant we found one, hundred which were. to stone extent, suitable for the purpose, and were sent forward on the 11th instant, the litters being sent by wagons in order to expedite the matter." October 3, 1862, Quartermaster General MEIGS, in transmitting this report to Surgeon General HAMMOND. stated: "I desire respectfully to call your attention to the fact mentioned in the report: that there are a large number of cacolets now in the possession of the Government which appear to have been overlooked by the officers of your Department, and to suggest the expediency of directing their availing themselves of them as occasion may arise. General McCLELLAN issued orders, a year ago, for drill and practice of ambulance men, including, as I understand, the use of the mule litters, of which, of French and American manufacture, there were then a considerable number provided by the Quartermaster's Department. Those lately purchased from Mr. KOHLER, on the requisition of the Surgeon General, cost $21,000 and are still in store." made another requisition for a hundred and fifty mules with drivers, with a view of having them drilled with cacolets in the field by Dr. Slade Davis; but, this, like previous experiments in this direction, proved abortive; and the ambulance material for transport by pack-animals, accumulated at no inconsiderable cost, was never really tested in the field.(1) There seems to have been a widespread distrust of the system on the part of officers of the Quartermaster's and the Medical Departments. "In a letter of March 20, 1863, Surgeon George Suckley, U. S V., Medical Director of the Eleventh, Corps, wrote from the Army of the Potomac, near Fredericksburg, to Surgeon J. H. Brinton, U. S. V., at Washington: 'There are no cacolets in this corps, and I want none. Three hundred and fifty pounds weight is too much for a mule's back over rough ground, encumbered by bushes, stones, logs, and ditches. Among trees, cacolets will not answer at all; although used in European services and in Algeria, they have there been employed under some favorable circumstances, either on plains or on open rolling country. Here they would prove, I sincerely believe, only a troublesome and barbarous encumbrance, cruel alike to the wounded and the pack-animals.'"



Medical TransportEdit

Ambulances Edit

In the early part of the war medical supplies and instruments had been carried in heavy army wagons. In March, 1862, a medicine wagon was constructed by E. Hayes & Co., of Wheeling, Virginia, in accordance with plans and instructions of Surgeon Jonathan Letterman, U.S.A. Details of the internal arrangement of this wagon, could not be obtained. A Board, consisting of Brigade Surgeon William Hayes and Assistant Surgeons Hammond and Dunster, U. S. A., on April 17, 1862, examined the wagon and reported as follows: "The merits of this dispensary wagon are so apparent, when compared with the old method of packing medicines and instruments in unwieldy boxes and transporting them in the heavy army wagons, that the Board unanimously approves of the same, and recommend that it at once be sent into the field where it can be practically tested. The adoption of a vehicle of this or some similar construction for the transporting of medicines, etc., in the field would be an actual saving in transportation over the present plan, as a three months' regimental supply can be carried with case in a single wagon dispensary. The advantage accruing from the prevention of loss by wastage and breakage, the convenience of having the whole together and unencumbered by other baggage, and the readiness of access to medicines, instruments, and dressings in case of an emergency, are so palpable that it is only a matter of surprise that some such plan has not been previously adopted." In November, 1862, Mr. J. Dunton proposed a medicine wagon, a drawing of which is shown in FIG. 430. It was examined by Medical Inspectors T. F. Perley and J. M. Cuyler and Surgeons J. Simpson and J. H. Brinton, who reported, on November 3, 1862that it was questionable whether it would answer the purpose for which it was designed, as it was faulty in construction, and its capacity insufficient to accommodate the entire hospital. Ambulance wagons, or wagons especially designed for the transport of sick and wounded, had not been in use in the armies of the United States until a year or so before the outbreak of the War of the Rebellion. Transport carts, army wagons, ox teams, in fact anything that could be made available for the purpose, had been employed. In the War of Independence, in April, 1777, the Congress of the United States passed a bill "devising ways and means for preserving the health of the troops" which contained the following paragraph:(1) "That a suitable number of covered and other wagons, litters, and other necessaries for removing the sick and wounded, shall be supplied by the Quartermaster or Deputy Quartermaster General; and in case of their deficiency, by the Director or Deputy Director General." There is no record that such vehicles were supplied. During the war with Great Britain, in 1812-'14, there were evidently no ambulance wagons in the United States army, as Surgeon James Mann,(2) in his report of that campaign, is found to make the request that, "to facilitate the movement of the hospital department attached to an army, it should be furnished with a number of wagons and teams, so as not to be immediately dependent on the Quartermaster's Department, when requisite either to take the wounded from the field of battle, or transport the sick in case of a retrograde march, or remove invalids after having recovered from wounds to a remote hospital. The flying machines called volant, drawn by horses (an improvement of Larrey, Chief Surgeon of the French army), are useful in open countries, where a corps is assigned to accompany them on the field of battle, upon Larrey's plan." The same author (loc. cit., p. 126) relates that he transported, in February, 1814, four hundred and fifty sick men from Malone to Plattsburgh and Burlington, a distance of seventy miles, in sleighs, losing six patients by death. In the Florida war, in 1838, ambulance wagons are mentioned by Surgeon R. S. Satterlee, U. S. A., Medical Director south of Withlacoochee, in a report from Fort Brooke, Tampa Bay, dated January 5th: "I found the ambulances very serviceable, but as some of the wounded could not be transported in them, on account of the roughness of the road, between thirty and forty of them were brought a part of the way on litters between two horses." Surgeon Satterlee probably had reference to the ordinary transport wagons used on this occasion for conveying sick and wounded. In the General Regulations for the Army of the United Sates, Washington, 1847, page 123, paragraph 704, it was ordered that: "For the accommodation of the sick and disabled, a wagon will be attached to the rear guard, when necessary and practicable, and a surgeon will attend to give assistance, and to see that no improper persons are suffered to avail themselves of the accommodation." No ambulance wagons were attached to the American army in Mexico in 1846-\\\'48, or to the expeditions in Indian territories before the outbreak of the war. In 1858 an ambulance wagon (FIGS. 452, 453) had been proposed by Dr. I. Moses, of New York, and on March 2, 1858, a Board of Officers, consisting of Surgeons R. S. Satterlee, O. H. Laub, and Assistant Surgeon C. H. Crane, had been appointed to examine and report on its merits. The report of the Board is appended: "The ambulance resembles an omnibus, is entered by two steps in the rear, contains seats for eighteen persons--fourteen inside and four on the front seat. By raising the flaps of the inside seats and supporting them by the (1) BROWN (H.), The Medical Department of the United States Army from 1775 to 1873, Washington, 1873, page 36. (2) MANN (JAMES), Medical Sketches of the Campaigns of 1812-13-14, Dedham, 1816, page 250. uprights attached, and removing the cushions from the backs of the permanent seats, a bed is arranged which will accommodate one, two, or, on an emergency, three men lying down. With one man in a recumbent position, room for twelve men seated remains; with two men lying down, room for eight, and with three men lying down, room for six remains.

A canvas, stretched and suspended by cords from the top, will accommodate two men lying down where the roads are rough. A close-stool is provided in the vehicle. Two seats, separated from the rest, next to the door, are provided for the hospital steward and attendant. Two movable chests are placed under these seats to contain what may be required for daily use. The movable door closing the ambulance may become, by change of position, a table for writing or dispensing medicine. The interior is closed entirely by curtains of prepared canvas, or partly by curtains and Venetian blinds for free ventilation--windows admitting sufficient light when entirely closed. Under the front seat are placed two store chests. Underneath the carriage, on either side of the door, are two five-gallon kegs for water. Under the body of the vehicle are hooks for camp kettles, pails, and cooking utensils.


Two drawers are arranged on each side, between the wheels and under the carriage, which may be used as panniers when necessary. On the hooks surrounding the ambulance, five feet from the ground, canvas is stretched, extending ten feet on each side of the carriage, the front and rear being protected in the same manner, which forms a comfortable and ample tent protection for thirty sick men, and which may be arranged in a few minutes after arriving in camp by one or two men. In more permanent encampments, or in hot weather, this canvas may be fastened to hooks around the top of the ambulance wagon (FIG. 454), serving a better purpose by giving more space and freer ventilation. It is suggested that a light iron railing, about four inches in height, should surround the top of the ambulance, where, by having a suitable canvas cover, blankets and other indispensable articles might be securely carried. A lantern suspended over the front seat may be removed to the rear of the carriage, at will. It will admit of sufficient accommodation in the way of transportation and provide tent shelter for the sick of a regiment on marches. The dimensions are: extreme length, thirteen feet eight inches; height of floor from ground, three feet three inches; height of top from ground, eight feet four inches; height of inside, five feet; width, four feet four inches. Weight, two thousand one hundred and fifteen (2,115) pounds. When loaded with men, medicines, tent canvas, etc., it can be readily drawn by six horses or mules. The size of the wheels and the track of the same correspond with those of the government wagons. After a close examination of the ambulance, the Board is of the opinion that it is well adapted for field and frontier service, and for the comfortable transportation of sick and wounded men on long marches; that the tent arrangement forms a valuable, useful, and comfortable shelter for hospital patients. On marches it does away with the use of hospital tents, is easily arranged, keeps the hospital separate, and requires no detail of pioneers or extra duty men to pitch and arrange it. In submitting this opinion the members of the Board must also express their views, based upon their own individual experience, that to be made thus available and useful for the comfort and well-being of the sick the ambulance should be the property of the Medical Department, and that the team, harness, etc., should be under the exclusive control and direction of the medical officers under all and every circumstance." No action seems to have followed the recommendations of this Board, and no ambulances were built.

In October, 1859, a Board of Medical Officers, consisting of Surgeon C. A Finley, R. S. Satterlee, C. S. Tripler, J. M. Cuyler, and Assistant Surgeon R. H. Coolidge, had recommended: 1st, that ambulance transportation ought to be furnished for forty men per thou-sand--twenty lying extended and twenty sitting; 2d, that both two and four-wheeled ambulance wagons are necessary for the hospital service; 3d, that a two-wheeled ambulance wagon is the best for the conveyance of dangerously sick or wounded men * * *; that to each company one two-wheeled ambulance wagon, to a battalion of five companies one four-wheeled and five two-wheeled ambulance wagons, and to a regiment two four-wheeled and ten two-wheeled ambulance wagons be allowed; and that for hospital supplies to commands of less than three companies one two-wheeled transport cart, to commands of more than three or less than five, or five companies, two, and to a regiment four two-wheeled transport carts be assigned; and that the transport carts be made after the models of the two-wheeled ambulance wagons (their interior arrangement for the sick excepted). The same Board selected, from a number of the most approved plans laid before them. the two-wheeled wagons designed by Surgeon C. A. Finley and Assistant Surgeon R. H. Coolidge. The bottom of the body of the Finley pattern (FIGS. 455, 456) was divided into two compartments, each containing a movable mattress frame or stretcher; four longitudinal pieces either in or upon the framework were grooved on their upper surfaces so as to receive the rollers in the mattress frame. The body of the wagon rested on four elliptical springs fastened upon the shafts, which extended the whole length of the body, crossing, and connected with the axle.

The body of the Coolidge cart (FIG. 457) was hung on platform springs. The body was seven feet long, four feet wide, and one foot and eight inches deep, covered with a ribbed frame-work five and a half inches above the floor. Upon the relative merits of the two patterns of two-wheeled ambulance carts the Board hesitated to express an opinion, and therefore recommended "that one of each pattern be sent to the respective Military Departments of Texas, New Mexico, Utah, California, and Oregon, and two of each pattern to Fort Leavenworth, and that they be placed in service at the scene of Indian hostilities and on marches across the plains, in order that their practical advantages might be ascertained." The Board considered the two-wheeled cart as the most convenient for the conveyance of dangerously sick and dangerously wounded men. A number of these two-wheeled carts(1) were furnished to the troops in the early part of the war, but experience soon proved them useless; their motion was intolerable and excruciating; wounded men begged to be taken out, wounded officers insisted upon leaving them, and they were supplanted by four-wheeled vehicles, the earliest of which was the Tripler ambulance wagon recommended by the Medical Board of 1859 (FIGS. 458-460).

It was constructed to carry ten men,(2) four lying at length and six seated, and required four horses. The body of the wagon was ten feet long, four feet wide, and the sides three feet high. Upon the floor were permanently laid four parallel iron rails seven feet long and one-fourth of an inch wide and high, with convex faces. Two spring mattresses were run in upon these rails. Twenty-two inches above the surfaces of these mattresses another set of rails was fitted to the wagon, upon which another set of mattresses was run. In front of the wagon was a chest intended for instruments, dressings, etc., which, when closed, formed a seat for three persons. At the tail of the carriage was another seat for three persons. All or any part of the interior of (1) On May 20, 1861, Acting Surgeon General R. C. WOOD wrote to the Secretary of War: "It is highly important that provision be made for the safe and comfortable transportation of the sick and wounded, and in conformity with the recommendations of a Board of Medical Officers convened by the Secretary of War. and their report approved by him in General Orders No. 1, January 19, 1860, I have to recommend that .two hundred of the two-wheeled ambulances be immediately constructed by the Quartermaster's Department. The recommendation was approved by the Secretary of War and the wagons were constructed and sent to the troops." (2) LONGMORE (T.) (A Treatise on the Transport of Sick and Wounded Troops, London, 1869, page 382) erroneously states that this wagon was constructed to carry eight men, all lying down. the wagon was arranged so that it could be removed at pleasure, making it available for the transportation of hospital supplies. The cover of the wagon was of heavy duck supported on five hoops. The carriage was hung on platform springs, and underneath the body was suspended a water-butt three feet six inches long and fourteen inches in diameter. This wagon was extensively used and answered the purpose, although it was cumbrous and very heavy.(1)

The Wheeling or Rosecrans ambulance wagon (FIGS. 461, 462) was also used in the early part of the war. It was built in the Government workshops after a design of General W. S. Rosecrans, U. S. A. It was lighter than the Tripler or the Coolidge, could be readily drawn by two horses, and would accommodate eleven or twelve sitting or two recumbent and two or three sitting patients. Two cushioned benches were attached to the two sides of the interior of the wagon, running along its whole length. From the edge of each of these benches, fastened by hinges, depended a cushioned seat the length of the benches. These seats could be readily brought on a level with the benches, and when thus elevated could be securely fixed by iron feet, folded in the suspended seat. For the ends of the iron feet receptacles were fitted in the floor of the wagon. When both seats were raised they met, in the middle of the carriage and made one continuous bed for two patients. When only one seat was raised it formed a bed for a recumbent patient, while the other bench, with its suspended seat, allowed space for at least four sitting patients. A water-tank, capable of holding five gallons, was stored away under the seats in the rear end of the ambulance wagon; not unfrequently stretchers took the place of one of the water-tanks. In front of the benches a transverse seat, accommodating the driver and two or three patients, was (1) Detailed specifications for the TRIPLER ambulance wagon will be found in a Report of a Board of Officers to decide upon a Pattern of Ambulance Wagon for Army Use, Washington, 1878, page 50. provided. Under the seat was a box for medicines and other articles for field use. Accurate specifications for the building of this ambulance will be found on page 59 of the Report of a Board of Officers to decide upon a pattern of ambulance-wagon above referred to. The body of the wagon rested upon four elliptical springs, two placed, transversely (one on the front and one on rear axle), and two on the rear axle running longitudinally. A frame of light wood, with canvas cover, protected the patients against the inclemencies of the weather, and on the sides curtains of canvas could be closely buttoned to the top and the body. At the rear of the wagon was a step to assist patients and bearers in lifting in the wounded. The weight of the wagon was between seven hundred and eight hundred pounds.

A four-wheeled ambulance wagon (FIGS. 463, 464). designed by Assistant Surgeon R. H. Coolidge, was very little used. The sills of the wagon were ten feet four inches long, and the body rested between two semi-ellip-tical springs seven feet nine and three-quarter inches in length (FIG. 463). It was intended to accommodate two patients in recumbent and four in sitting postures, two with the driver on the front seat, and two at the end of the wagon, one on each side (see FIG. 465). The beds for the two prone patients were so arranged that they could be changed into seats, as shown in FIG. 465, when the wagon would accommodate ten patients and the driver. Detailed specifications of this ambulance wagon will be found on page 61 of the Report of a Board of Officers to decide upon a pattern of ambulance wagon already referred to.

Other plans for ambulance wagons were proposed during the war, and for the information of those interested in this subject we will here refer to such as were submitted to boards of medical officers for examination and report. In June, 1863, A. W. Süs (Subject-Matter Index of Patents for Inventions issued by the United States Patent Office, Washington, 1874, Vol. I, page 14, No. 39,595) exhibited a wagon intended to carry four severely wounded men in a recumbent position. A Medical Board (Medical Inspectors E. P. Vol-lum and W. H. Mussey, and Surgeon J. H. Brinton, U. S. V.) considered an "increase in the carrying capacity advantageous and feasible," but was not prepared to endorse the plan of Mr. Sos in all its details. The Board was of the opinion that the Wheeling ambulance wagon, then largely in use in the army, could readily be altered to carry four patients in a lying position, as in Mr. Süs\\'s plan. Mr. Süs, in April, 1864, offered an improved plan, which was, by order of Surgeon R. O. Abbott, Medical Director, Department of Washington, inspected by Assistant Surgeon W. E. Waters, U. S. Army, who reported, on June 2, 1864: "These improvements consist in adapting the ambulance for the conveyance of four patients lying down, instead of two, as with the present arrangement, while, at the same time, the carrying capacity for such as can sit up is\\' not at all interfered with. The improvement is effected by having the seats fastened with hooks to the side of the ambulance so that they can be detached and put upon the floor, thus forming a bed, on which the patient can lie with full as much comfort, as regards position, as with the present arrangement, while they are made more comfortable by the addition of elastic springs within the cushion." Surgeon Waters\\' report was approved by Medical Director Abbott, who recommended that ten or twelve ambulances fitted with these improvements be sent to the field for trial. In April, 1864, G. W. Arnold (Subject-Matter Index of Patents, etc., page 14, No. 45,152) brought to the notice of the Surgeon General an ambulance wagon for which he claimed advantages over the Wheeling ambulance wagon in the arrangements of the seats or beds. The Board (Surgeon O. A. Judson and Assistant Surgeon W. Thomson) to whom the examination of the vehicle was referred reported, on April 5, 1864, that "the only advantages it possessed over the Wheeling model was that its litters could be removed from the wagon, the patient, placed upon them, and then easily returned; but that the capacity for carrying men was diminished, and that the litters accompanying the wagon were too heavy, weighing about seventy pounds each, and would add, with their apparatus for suspension, nearly two hundred pounds to the weight of the ambulance wagon." On October 11, 1864, E. R. McKean patented an ambulance wagon (Subject-Matter Index of Patents, etc., page 14, No. 44,643) with litters or beds suspended by rubber rings. Surgeons R. O. Abbott, C. Sutherland, and Assistant Surgeon William Thomson inspected the wagon and reported, on March 25, 1865: "The principle of suspending the stretcher upon which the patient lies by rings of India rubber, in lieu of the springs of steel usually placed beneath the body of the wagon, is the main difference between this and the ambulance now in general use. However valuable this principle may be, the mechanical contrivances by which it is obtained in the wagon submitted are, in the opinion of the Board, too complicated, wanting in solidity and durability, and too liable to the loss of detached pieces, to render this ambulance fit for the severe test of field service." In September, 1865, an India rubber spring ambulance wagon, by Perot & Co., was brought to the attention of the Surgeon General by Brigadier General C. H. Crossman, U. S. Army. Surgeons C. McDougall, John Campbell, and A. K. Smith, and Assistant Surgeon C. H. Alden, appointed a Board to examine the rubber spring wagon, reported, on October 26, 1865: "The Board is very favorably impressed with the plan proposed, and as its peculiarities are best shown by contrast, would state the following as some of the particulars in which it is thought the India rubber spring is superior to the ordinary steel spring. It more perfectly controls the movements of the body of the ambulance in every direction, either upward, downward, or laterally, rendering the motion of those seated or lying within steadier and more equable. It is better adapted to carrying weights in the ambulance, acting with nearly the same effect with a light or heavy load. It is believed to be more durable. An ambulance built upon this plan was shown to the Board, belonging to the West Philadelphia Fire Company, which had been in use for several years, and which showed but little evidence of wear in the springs. It is easily repairable, as a spare spring can be readily carried in the ambulance wagon, and can be substituted for a broken one with but little delay and trouble. The India rubber springs weigh thirty-five and three-quarter pounds, which at seventy-five cents per pound would amount to $26.81. Steel springs of the same power would weigh about two hundred pounds and cost about $50.00."

The most serviceable ambulance wagon used during the latter part of the war was that designed by Brigadier General D. H. Rucker, and built at the Government repair shops at Washington. It accommodates patients either in the sitting or lying postures. On the floor of the vehicle are two stretchers suitable for carrying one patient each, and each divided by a longitudinal hinge-joint. These stretchers have the usual handles, and run on elastic rollers so as to move readily longitudinally in the bottom of the wagon. When required as seats, the joints of the stretchers are bent and the two parts are made to assume (see FIG. 469) a position at right angles to each other, the half which has the horizontal position being hooked to the sides of the vehicle, the other part forming the support or leg for the front of the seat. When the lower bed or stretcher is thus bent to form a seat, the upper beds are turned down to make backs for the lower seats (see FIG. 469). These backs are only joined to the sides of the wagon by hinges at their upper edge, and the lower edge can be raised upward and inward, toward the middle of the carriage. When thus elevated the two backs meet in the middle of the carriage and are there supported by iron supports, which, being hinged to their under surfaces, can be readily lowered for the purpose. In the floor are springs for the reception of the iron supports. A platform is thus built on which two patients, on stretchers, can be laid (FIG. 468). These stretchers ordinarily are suspended from the roof of the carriage, each stretcher being slung with one side to the middle of the roof and with the other to the bend of the arched roof (see FIG. 469). The space between the upper surface of the lower and the lower surface of the upper stretchers was about twenty-one inches. This space was ventilated by lattice openings on each side of the body of the ambulance wagon, as indicated in FIG. 466. The body rested on platform springs, and the fore wheels were smaller than the hind wheels. The water-cask was under the driver\\'s seat, and the spigot projected slightly through the side of the body. The weight was about one thousand one hundred and twenty pounds, exceeding that of the Wheeling, which only weighed from seven to eight hundred pounds, but the Rucker wagon was somewhat longer and broader. Detailed specifications of this ambulance wagon will be found on page 48 of the Report of a Board of Officers to decide upon a Pattern of Ambulance Wagon for Army Use, Washington, 1878.

In October, 1864, Assistant Surgeon B. Howard, U. S. Army, constructed an ambulance wagon (FIGs. 470, 471) for which he claimed many advantages. A full description, with illustrations, will be found on pages 981-994 of The Sanitary Commission Bulletin, Vol. I, 1866; an extract, omitting some of the minor details, is here reproduced: "To enable the badly wounded to be easily loaded and unloaded, two litters or beds are provided, made of wood, like an ordinary shutter, with sliding handles at each corner. Upon this the patient is easily shifted, and without any disturbance. The litter is slid into the ambulance wagon on rollers. In the same way the patient is removed on arrival at the hospital, and without being disturbed until he reaches his bed. If part, or all the patients are able to sit up, one or both of the litters can be slid into a compartment provided for that purpose under the floor of the vehicle. There are six permanent seats, each situated transversely, and each a corner seat with back and cushioned seats. This gives a comfortable purchase, secures the patients against much of the usual jolting, and prevents them being driven against each other in going over rough roads. The sides of the ambulance wagon, as also both sides of the back of the driver\\'s seat, and the inside of the upper section of the tail-board, are cushioned, while the middle seats have for a back a leather strap, like that used in stage coaches; thus each seat is rendered very comfortable, and being transverse instead of longitudinal is in every respect easier for the patient. In order to diminish the motion of the body of the wagon and prevent rolling and pitching, so intolerable in the ordinary ambulance wagon, semi-elliptical springs have been substituted for the elliptical ones. In order that the limited motion thus obtained be so modified as to give least jar to patients, internal counterpoise springs are used, the delicacy of which may be modified to any extent desired. The platform or frame on which the seats and beds rest is as long but not so wide by about two inches as the inside of the body of the wagon. Between the inside of the body and the frame of the platform is an interspace; this is occupied by two lateral semi-elliptical steel springs on either side, fastened at the centre of their arc to the inside of the body of the vehicle, the feet of which-play upon iron plates on the outside of the frame. Opposite the centre of the arc on the frame is fixed a block of soft rubber, so that on the application of much force it should be received by the rubber blocks, which thus act as buffers. The platform or frame on which the seats and beds rest stands upon four iron stanchions, each of which rests on springs like the lateral springs described above, but much stronger, as seen at FIG. 472, the iron stanchions resting on steel springs, the feet of which play upon iron plates let into the floor of the ambulance wagon. The spring is restrained in its motion upward by an iron staple, and when, by an unusual weight, it is heavily pressed down; the force is received by a block of soft India rubber enclosed within the staple. An impulse communicated to the floor of the wagon, instead of being propagated to the beds or seats, causes a counteraction downward of the spring, which, if the force be very great, spends itself upon the block of rubber. In this way, both laterally and perpendicularly, a constant poise is preserved, and what would otherwise be a very violent jar is reduced to little more than a vibration. The steadiness of the entire vehicle is preserved by the stout semi-elliptical spring beneath the body, and the delicacy regulated to any degree by the internal counterpoise springs within the body. That the water may be carried securely, immobility of the vessel containing it during transportation is necessary. This is effected by substituting for the casks in ordinary use a tank, which slides into a grooved bed and is secured by an ordinary fastening. In a military point of view it possesses a great advantage in this: that besides the prescribed articles which may be carried in the driver\\'s box, a large amount of medical supplies may be carried in the body of the ambulance wagon without interfering with the comfort of badly wounded patients. There being but four stanchions, and these being close up to the side of the vehicle, the entire body beneath the platform is free for transportation of supplies. There is an arrangement for suspension of fractures of the lower extremity, which is very grateful to the patients. Two parallel iron bars are attached to the roof of the ambulance wagon longitudinally over each bed, between which runs a roller with a dependent hook. The fractured limb being placed in a double-inclined plane or other splint, a bandage is passed through terrestra of the box splint and then carried over the hook from which the limb is suspended. In this way, instead of the jolting and jarring so commonly experienced, simple oscillation is substituted, or, if desired, guys of bandage may be so extended to the uprights of the ambulance as to render the limb nearly motionless during transportation." The weight of the Howard ambulance wagon was twelve hundred and thirty-two pounds. The plan of this wagon, with recommendations of some twenty officers of the Army of the Potomac, was submitted for examination by Surgeon T. A. McParlin, Medical Director of the Fifth Army Corps, to a Board of Medical Officers, consisting of Surgeon J. J. Milhau, U. S. A., Surgeon L. W. Read, U. S. V., and Assistant Surgeon George A. McGill, U. S. A., who reported, on October 6, 1864, that: "the ambulance wagon meets the approbation of the Board as one presenting some decided advantages over that now in use. It is recommended further that at least two to a division be furnished, so that a fair trial can be made of such vehicles." A number of the old pattern ambulance wagons were thereupon altered according to the plans submitted by Assistant Surgeon B. Howard, U. S. A., at the Government repair shops at Washington. But it seems that after nine months' experience in the field these ambulance wagons failed to meet the expected advantages. In a letter dated Medical Director's Office, Headquarters Fifth Corps, June 29, 1865, Surgeon Charles Page, U. S. A., remarks' "There have been two of the ambulance wagons in each division train of the corps, and for case to the patient the report is universal in their favor. They are apt to get out of order, and being heavy cannot be carried where the other ambulance wagons can go. For marches I think the Howard ambulance wagon is superior; but for field work, in time of action, I would prefer the present Rucker pattern of ambulance wagon." In a reply to a note of enquiry from the Surgeon Genera] dated June 29, 1865, Surgeon T. R. Spencer, U. S. V., from Headquarters of the Fifth Army Corps, takes a similar view: "So far as I can learn in this corps, it, is not regarded as an improvement upon the old one. It is so heavy as to require four horses, else it rapidly destroys two. It is so complicated as to be continually getting out of order. As now constructed the ambulance wagon does not ride as easy over all roads as the old one. The only advantage it seems to possess is in the greater convenience of loading and unloading; this soon results in the loss of the bed, as officers will not consent to be removed from the bed during transportation. Once lost, or taken from the ambulance wagon, the bed is never returned, and the wagon is henceforth useless." Fig. 473. An Army Wagon Fitted up as an Ambulance Wagon. [After LANGER.] In the winter of 1864-\\\\\'65 an ambulance wagon, proposed by Dr. I. Langer, was used at the Fifth Army Corps Depot Hospital before Petersburg. It was arranged to accommodate eight persons, four in sitting and four in recumbent positions, or six in sitting and two in recumbent, or all eight in sitting postures. The advantages claimed were, greater seating capacity, greater facilities for loading and unloading, greater comfort to patients, offering easier access to each single patient, superior ventilation, and that it had apparatus for suspending two patients with compound fractures of the thigh. In April, 1865, a Board was convened, consisting of Colonel R. O. Abbott and Assistant Surgeons J. J. Woodward and William Thomson, U. S. A., to examine and report on this ambulance wagon. The Board considered seriatim the advantages claimed by Dr. Langer, basing its opinions on comparisons with the Wheeling and the Rucker patterns then most generally in use- "The model examined is altered from a Wheeling ambulance wagon; the changes are radical and the additions numerous. So ingeniously complicated are the appliances, and so multitudinous the objects to be obtained, that the wagon would fail to meet the test of field service. The probable loss of its numerous detached pieces would rob it of all its special advantages, and leave it less useful than the Wheeling and Rucker wagons. In comparison with the former it has some advantages; but it fails to compete in practical usefulness with the ambulance wagon devised by Brigadier General Rucker." With regard to the apparatus for the purpose of transporting two thigh fractures the Board find: "The novelty of the method and the uncertainty of its practical value would not warrant the alteration of all the ambulance wagons in the service to fit them for transporting in this manner an occasional fractured femur." The Board refused to recommend the introduction of the Langer ambulance wagon into the service in preference to those then in use. At the same time Dr. Langer submitted to the Surgeon General for inspection an army wagon (FIG. 473) which had been fitted up with twelve beds for transporting patients. Dr. Langer claimed "that this change of the army wagon would not interfere with its design of conveying forage or other articles to and from a camp; that when the wagon is used for carrying forage the twelve beds are packed under a movable bottom, and the railing supporting them is stowed away on the sides, so that the capacity of the wagon box is not impaired; that in ten minutes after the wagon is unloaded it is changed into an ambulance wagon with all the equipments for transport--six patients in a sitting posture, six in a lying, two of which, if necessary, suspended on fracture beds of Dr. Langer\\\\\'s pattern; that there is room for all the equipments of the patients, for a water-keg, and for boxes with provisions and bandages, and that the wagon can be loaded from the front as well \\\\\'as the rear." As far as can be ascertained the experiment was tried but once. A drawing of the Confederate field ambulance wagon is copied from Chisolm(1) in FIG. 474. No description of the vehicle could be obtained. "The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion. (1861-65.) --Part III, Volume II, Chapter XV.--Transportation Of The Wounded. Ambulance Wagons"

Ambulance Corps.Edit

In time for Antietam, the Army of the Potomac, under its medical director Jonathan Letterman, developed the Letterman Ambulance Plan. In this system the ambulances of a division moved together, under a mounted line sergeant, with two stretcher-bearers and one driver per ambulance, to collect the wounded from the field, bring them to the dressing stations, and then take them to the field hospital. It was a vast improvement over the earlier "system," wherein bandsmen in the Union command, and men randomly specified in the Confederacy, were simply appointed to drive the ambulances and carry the litters. This plan was implemented in August 1862 when McClellan issued General Orders No. 147 creating the Ambulance Corps for the Army of the Potomac under the control of the Medical Director. Frequently, prior to the Ambulance Corps, the most unfit soldiers were detailed, which often meant that, not being good fighters, they were little better as medical assistants. Often in the first year of the war they got drunk on medicinal liquor and ignored their wounded comrades in order to hide themselves from enemy fire. Such improved organization was copied or approximated in the other field armies despite loud opposition from the Quartermaster Corps, which wanted to keep control of ambulances and drivers, and from some field commanders, of whom Major General Don Carlos Buell of the Army of the Ohio was notable for noncooperation. Despite the vast improvement in the evacuation of the wounded from the battle field, it was not until March 1864 that Congress published the act (Public 22) to create an Ambulance Corps for all the Union Armies.


Navy Hospital Ships Edit

USS Red Rover (1861) was a 650-ton Confederate States of America steamer that the U.S. Navy captured. After refitting the vessel, the Union used it as a hospital ship during the American Civil War.

Red Rover became the U.S. Navy’s first hospital ship, serving the Mississippi Squadron until the end of the American Civil War. Her medical complement included nurses from the Catholic order Sisters of the Holy Cross, the first female nurses to serve on board a Navy ship. In addition to caring for and transporting sick and wounded men, she provided medical supplies to Navy ships along the Western Rivers. Red Rover was a side-wheel steamer built in 1859 at Cape Girardeau, Missouri. The Confederacy purchased her on 7 November 1861, and initially put her to use as a barracks ship for the floating battery at New Orleans, Louisiana. Serving from 15 March 1862, at Island No. 10, near New Madrid, Missouri, she was holed by Union fire during a bombardment of that island sometime before 25 March, leading the Confederates to abandon her as a barracks ship. When the island fell to Union forces on 7 April, the Union gunboat Mound City, captured Red Rover. The Union forces repaired her, fitting her out as a summer hospital boat for the Army's Western Flotilla. Her role was to augment the limited Union medical facilities, to minimize the hazards to sick and wounded in fighting ships, and to facilitate delivery of medical supplies to and evacuation of personnel from forward areas. At the time of Red Rover's commissioning as a hospital ship, the Union was already using steamers such as the City of Memphis as medical transports to carry casualties upriver. However, these transports lacked necessary sanitary accommodations and medical staff, and thus were unable to prevent the spread of disease. Barges, housed over or covered with canvas, were ordered for the care of contagious diseases, primarily smallpox, and were moored in shady spots along the river. Rapid mobilization at the start of the Civil War had vitiated efforts to prevent the outbreak and epidemic communication of disease on both sides of the conflict. Vaccination was slow; sanitation and hygiene were generally poor. Overworked military medical personnel were assisted by voluntary societies coordinated by the U.S. Sanitary Commission founded in June 1861. But by 1865 typhoid fever, typhus, dysentery, diarrhea, cholera, smallpox, measles, and malaria would claim more lives than gunshot. Red Rover, serving first with the Union Army, then with the Union Navy, drew on both military and voluntary medical personnel. Her conversion to a hospital boat, begun at St. Louis, Missouri, and completed at Cairo, Illinois, was accomplished with both sanitation and comfort in mind. A separate operating room was installed and equipped. A galley was put below, providing separate kitchen facilities for the patients. The cabin aft was opened for better air circulation. A steam boiler was added for laundry purposes. An elevator, numerous bathrooms, nine water closets, and gauze window blinds "... to keep cinders and smoke from annoying the sick" were also included in the work. On 10 June 1862, Red Rover was ready for service. Her commanding officer was Captain McDaniel of the Army's Gunboat Service. Assistant Surgeon George H. Bixby became Surgeon in Charge. On 11 June, Red Rover received her first patient, a cholera victim. By the 14th she had 55 patients. On the 17th, Mound City exploded during an engagement with Confederate batteries at St. Charles, Arkansas. Casualties amounted to 135 out of a complement of 175. Red Rover, dispatched to assist in the emergency, took on board extreme burn and wound cases at Memphis, Tennessee, and transported them to less crowded hospitals in Illinois From Mound City, Illinois, the hospital boat moved down-stream again and joined the Western Flotilla above Vicksburg, Mississippi. Through the summer, she treated the flotilla's sick and wounded while the Ram Fleet engaged at Vicksburg and along the Mississippi River to Helena, Arkansas. While off Helena, Red Rover caught fire, but, with assistance from the gunboat Benton, extinguished the blaze and continued her work. In September 1862, Red Rover, still legally under the jurisdiction of an Illinois prize court, was sent to Cairo, Illinois, to be winterized. The Navy purchased her on the 30th. The next day, the Union transferred the vessels of the Western Flotilla, with their officers and men, to the Navy Department to serve as the Mississippi Squadron under acting Rear Adm. David Dixon Porter. The Navy Medical Department of Western Waters was organized at the same time under Fleet Surg. Edward Gilchrist. In December Red Rover, used during the fall to alleviate crowded medical facilities ashore, was ready for service on the river. On the 26th, she was commissioned under the command of Acting Master William R. Wells, USN. Her complement was 47, while her medical department, remaining under Assistant Surgeon Bixby, was initially about 30. Of that number, three were Sisters of the Order of the Holy Cross, later joined by a fourth member of their order and assisted by lay nurses' aides. These women were the forerunners of the U.S. Navy Nurse Corps. The Western Sanitation Commission, which also donated over $3,000 worth of equipment to the ship, coordinated the work of these and other volunteers. On the 29th, Red Rover headed downstream. During January 1863, she served with the expedition up the White River. While the expedition took the Port of Arkansas (Fort Hindman), she remained at the mouth of the river to receive the wounded. On her departure, she was fired on and two shots penetrated into the hospital area, but caused no casualties. From February to the fall of Vicksburg early in July, she cared for the sick and wounded of that campaign and supplemented her medical support of Union forces by provisioning other ships of the Mississippi Squadron with ice and fresh meat. She also provided burial details and sent medical personnel ashore when and where needed. Red Rover continued her service along the river, taking on sick and wounded and delivering medicine and supplies until the fall of 1864. In October of that year, she began her last supply run. After delivering medical stores to ships at Helena and on the White, Red, and Yazoo Rivers, she transferred patients to Hospital Pinckney at Memphis, Tennessee and headed north. Arriving at Mound City, Illinois, on 11 December, she remained there, caring for Navy patients, until she was decommissioned on 17 November 1865. Having admitted over 2,400 patients during her career, she transferred her last 11 to Grampus on that date. On 29 November she was sold at public auction to A. M. Carpenter.


Disease During the WarEdit

In general diseases and infections were gained from unsanitary conditions around the camp, and in medical areas and war prisons.

The majority of deaths caused in the war were due to infection or disease such as germs passed from patient to patient from unsterilized surgical equipment. All together roughly 60% of all those who died during the civil war died because of disease. The most common diseases referred to as “Surgical Fever”, were Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.

Staphylococcus aureus: Edit

Meaning “The Golden Cluster Seed”, it is the most common staph infection and is carried long term by approx. 20% of the world’s population. Staphylococcus most commonly presents itself in the nose or skins of carriers and is a spherical bacterium that causes a wide range of illnesses from minor skin conditions to deadly diseases respectively: pimples, impetigo, boils, cellulitis folliculitis, furuncles, carbuncles, scalded skin syndrome, pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditus, toxic shock syndrome, and septicemia; causing incidence from skin, soft tissue, respiratory, bone, joint, endovascular to wound infections.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staphylococcus_aureus

Streptococcus pyogenes: Edit

A speherical, gram positive bacteria that grows in long chains and is the primary cause of Group A streptococcal infections. It creates large zones of beta hemolysis (the complete disruption of erythrocytes and the release of hemoglobin) when cultured on blood agar plates and are therefore also called Group A (beta-hemolytic) Streptococcus (abbreviated GAS).

Group A streptococcal infections include infections such as bacteremia, impetigo, cellulitis, erysepilas, pneumonia, tonsillitis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, meningitis, vaginitis, necrotizing fasciitis, scarlet fever, sinusitis, strep throat and toxic shock syndrome.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Group_A_streptococcal_infection

http://www.textbookofbacteriology.net/streptococcus.html


Another severe disease that was going around on the battle field and especially in prison was gangrene.

Gangrene: Edit

Gangrene is a complication of necrosis or cell death, causing the decay of body tissues, which in turn become black or green, and malodorous. There are three main types of Gangrene, they are as follows:

[>]Dry Gangrene begins at the distal part of a limb until it reaches the point where the blood supply is inadequate to keep tissue viable. Macroscopically, the affected part is dry, shrunken and dark black, resembling mummified flesh. The line of separation usually brings about complete separation with eventual falling off of the gangrenous tissue if it is not removed surgically. If the blood flow is interrupted for a reason other than severe bacterial infection, the result is a case of dry gangrene. People with impaired peripheral blood flow, such as diabetics, are at greater risk of contracting dry gangrene.

[>]Wet Gangrene occurs in naturally moist tissue and organs such as the mouth, bowel, lungs, cervix, and vulva. In wet gangrene, the tissue is infected by saprogenic microorganisms which cause tissue to swell and emit a fetid smell. Wet gangrene usually develops rapidly due to blockage of venous and/or arterial blood flow. The affected part is saturated with stagnant blood which promotes the rapid growth of bacteria. The toxic products formed by bacteria are absorbed causing systemic manifestation of septicemia and finally death. Macroscopically, the affected part is edematous, soft, putrid, rotten and dark. The darkness in wet gangrene occurs due to the same mechanism as in dry gangrene.

[>]Gas Gangrene is a bacterial infection that produces gas within tissues. Gas gangrene is caused by a bacterial exotoxin-producing clostridial species, which are mostly found in soil and other anaerobes. These environmental bacteria may enter the muscle through a wound and subsequently proliferate in necrotic tissue and secrete powerful toxins. These toxins destroy nearby tissue, generating gas at the same time. Gas gangrene can cause necrosis, gas production, and sepsis. Progression to toxemia and shock is often very rapid. -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gangrene

Typhoid fever: Edit

is an illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Common worldwide, it is transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with feces from an infected person. The bacteria then perforate through the intestinal wall and are phagocytosed by macrophages. Salmonella Typhi then alters its structure to resist destruction and allow them to exist within the macrophage. This renders them resistant to damage by PMN\\\'s, complement and the immune response. The organism is then spread via the lymphatics while inside the macrophages. This gives them access to the reticuloendothelial system and then to the different organs throughout the body.

-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typhoid_fever

Dysentery: Edit

is a disorder of the digestive system that results in severe diarrhea containing mucus and/or blood in the feces. If left untreated, dysentery can (and usually will) be fatal. Symptoms include frequent passage of feces/stool and, in some cases, associated vomiting of blood. Variations depending on parasites can be frequent urge with high or low volume of stool, with or without some associated mucus or blood.

-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dysentry

Salmonella: Edit

Salmonella are closely related to the Escherichia genus and are found worldwide in warm- and cold-blooded animals, in humans, and in nonliving habitats. They cause illnesses in humans and many animals, such as typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and the foodborne illness salmonellosis. Salmonella infections are zoonotic; they can be transmitted by humans to animals and vice versa. Infection via food is also possible. A distinction is made between enteritis salmonella and typhoid/paratyphoid/salmonella, whereby the latter because of a special virulence factor and a capsule protein (virulence antigen) can cause serious illness, such as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhi, or Salmonella typhi). Salmonella typhi is adapted to humans and does not occur in animals.

- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmonella

Due to an outbreak of the anopheles mosquito a quarter of all servicemen had been struck by malaria during an epidemic.

Malaria: Edit

The parasite's primary (definitive) hosts and transmission vectors are female mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus. Young mosquitoes first ingest the malaria parasite by feeding on an infected human carrier and the infected Anopheles mosquitoes carry Plasmodium sporozoites in their salivary glands. A mosquito becomes infected when it takes a blood meal from an infected human. Once ingested, the parasite gametocytes taken up in the blood will further differentiate into male or female gametes and then fuse in the mosquito gut. This produces an ookinete that penetrates the gut lining and produces an oocyst in the gut wall. When the oocyst ruptures, it releases sporozoites that migrate through the mosquito's body to the salivary glands, where they are then ready to infect a new human host. This type of transmission is occasionally referred to as anterior station transfer. The sporozoites are injected into the skin, alongside saliva, when the mosquito takes a subsequent blood meal. Only female mosquitoes feed on blood, thus males do not transmit the disease. The females of the Anopheles genus of mosquito prefer to feed at night. They usually start searching for a meal at dusk, and will continue throughout the night until taking a meal. Malaria parasites can also be transmitted by blood transfusions, although this is rare


Symptoms of malaria include fever, shivering, arthralgia (joint pain), vomiting, anemia (caused by hemolysis), hemoglobinuria, retinal damage, and convulsions. The classic symptom of malaria is cyclical occurrence of sudden coldness followed by rigor and then fever and sweating lasting four to six hours, occurring every two days in P. vivax and P. ovale infections, while every three for P. malariae. P. falciparum can have recurrent fever every 36–48 hours or a less pronounced and almost continuous fever. For reasons that are poorly understood, but that may be related to high intracranial pressure, children with malaria frequently exhibit abnormal posturing, a sign indicating severe brain damage. Malaria has been found to cause cognitive impairments, especially in children. It causes widespread anemia during a period of rapid brain development and also direct brain damage. This neurologic damage results from cerebral malaria to which children are more vulnerable. Severe malaria is almost exclusively caused by P. falciparum infection and usually arises 6–14 days after infection. Consequences of severe malaria include coma and death if untreated—young children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable. Splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), severe headache, cerebral ischemia, hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), hypoglycemia, and hemoglobinuria with renal failure may occur. Renal failure may cause blackwater fever, where hemoglobin from lysed red blood cells leaks into the urine. Severe malaria can progress extremely rapidly and cause death within hours or days. Chronic malaria is seen in both P. vivax and P. ovale, but not in P. falciparum. Here, the disease can relapse months or years after exposure, due to the presence of latent parasites in the liver. Describing a case of malaria as cured by observing the disappearance of parasites from the bloodstream can, therefore, be deceptive. The longest incubation period reported for a P. vivax infection is 30 years Approximately one in five of P. vivax malaria cases in temperate areas involve overwintering by hypnozoites (i.e., relapses begin the year after the mosquito bite).

- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria


The Nurses Corps/Sanitary Commission Edit

Sanitary Commission and the beginning of Civil War Nurses Edit

The Sanitary Commission-An excerpt taken from the Harper’s Weekly Newspaper on August 24th, 1861- was created to combat the risks mentioned above.

Rules for Preserving the Health of the Soldier. REPORT OF THE U. S. SANITARY COMMISSION. PUBLISHED AT THE REQUEST OF THE SANITARY COMMISSIONERS. THE members of the Sanitary Commission ordered by the President of the United States, and acting under the direction of the Secretary of War, in co-operation with the Army Medical Bureau, to secure by all possible means the health and efficiency of our troops now in the field, and to prevent unnecessary disease and suffering, do most earnestly and affectionately request their brethren of the volunteer and militia to adopt and carry out the following " RULES FOR PRESERVING THE HEALTH OF THE SOLDIER." They are derived from the highest authority and the largest experience of military and medical men ; and it is believed that, if followed with the intelligence and honesty of purpose which characterize the American soldier, they will save the lives of thousands of brave men who would be otherwise lost to the service of their country. They are addressed alike to officers and privates, inasmuch as the latter are liable to promotion, and upon their officers devolves the responsibility of securing their health, safety, and comfort. They will be found in no instance to conflict with the "Army Regulations," by which all ranks are governed, and with which every good soldier should be familiar. It is absolutely necessary, for the sake of humanity and the efficiency of the army, that every man laboring under any physical infirmity which is liable to unfit him for bearing without injury the fatigues and hardships of a soldier's life in the field, should be promptly discharged from the service by his commanding officer on a surgeon's certificate of disability. (Army Regulations; par. 159-167, and 1134, 1135, 1138.) It is the duty of every good soldier who is conscious of any such disease or defect, which may have been overlooked on inspection, to report himself to the surgeon for advice. In case of discharge, means are provided for his prompt payment and conveyance to his home. Every officer and soldier should be carefully vaccinated with fresh vaccine matter, unless already marked by small-pox ; and in all cases where there is any doubt as to the success of the operation it should be repeated at once. "Good vaccine matter will be kept on hand by timely requisition on the Surgeon-General." (General Regulations, par. 1105, 1134.) Medical officers are earnestly advised to make themselves familiar with the " Revised Regulations for the Medical Department of the Army," a copy of which should be obtained by application to the Surgeon-General. They will thus learn the proper modes of securing supplies of medicines, instruments, and hospital stores, and rules for official conduct under all circumstances. The articles of food composing the rations issued by the United States Commissary Department have been proved, by sound experience, to be those best calculated for the food of the soldier. The amount allowed for each man is greater in quantity than the similar allowance for any European soldier. If he understands his duties and manages well, any commissary of subsistence can save from 15 to 30 per cent. out of the rations furnished by Government, and with the money thus saved, fresh vegetables, butter, milk, etc., may be procured. When the surgeon considers it "necessary for the health of the troops, the commanding officer, on his recommendation, may order issues of fresh vegetables, pickled onions, sauer-kraut, or molasses, with an extra quantity of rice and vinegar." (Army Regulations, paragraph 1079.) Dessicated vegetables and dried apples may be obtained on similar authority. When the rations furnished for the troops are damaged, or in any way unfit for use, the Army Regulations require the commanding officer to appoint a "Board of Survey," composed of competent officers, by which they may be condemned, in which case, good provisions are issued in their stead. (Par. 926.) Soldiers should always eat at regular hours, as far as the exigencies of service permit. Neglect of regular hours for meals tends to disorder the digestion, and to invite diarrhea. Each company should have its regularly detailed cook and assistant, who should always, on a march, be allowed to ride in one of the wagons, when practicable, inasmuch as their services are more necessary for the health of the men than in the ranks, and they are often required to cook at night the rations for the next day, while the men are sleeping. The men should always willingly procure wood and water for the cooks, whether detailed for such service or otherwise. "Bread and soup are the great items of a soldier's diet in every situation : to make them well is therefore an essential part of his instruction. Those great scourges of a camp life, the scurvy and diarrhea, more frequently result from a want of skill in cooking than from the badness of the ration, or from any other cause whatever. Officers in command, and more immediately regimental officers, will therefore give a strict attention to this vital branch of interior economy." (Winfield Scott.) The best mode of cooking fresh meat is to make a stew of it, with the addition of such vegetables as can be obtained. It may also be boiled; but roasting, broiling, or frying, in camp, are wasteful and unhealthy modes of cooking. " In camp or barracks the company officers must visit the kitchen daily, and inspect the kettles. * * * The commanding officer of the post or regiment will make frequent inspections of the kitchens and messes. * * * The greatest care will be observed in washing and scouring the cooking utensils: those made of brass or copper should be lined with tin. * * * The bread must be thoroughly baked, and not eaten until it is cold. The soup must be boiled at least five hours, and the vegetables always cooked sufficiently to be perfectly soft and digestible." (Regulations, par. 111, 112, 113.) Medical officers should frequently examine the articles of food issued to the men, inspect and taste it when cooked, and scrutinize the goodness of the cooking, and the condition, as to safety and cleanliness, of cooking utensils. Spirits should only be issued to the men after unusual exertion, fatigue, or exposure, and on the discretion of the surgeon. Those men who drink spirits habitually, or who commit excess in its use, are the first to fail when strength and endurance are required, and they are less likely to recover from wounds and injuries. Water should be always drank in moderation, especially when the body is heated. The excessive thirst which follows violent exertion, or loss of blood, is unnatural, and is not quenched by large and repeated draughts ; on the contrary, these are liable to do harm by causing bowel complaints. Experience teaches the old soldier that the less he drinks when on a march the better, and that he suffers less in the end by controlling the desire to drink, however urgent. There is no more frequent source of disease, in camp life, than inattention to the calls of nature. Habitual neglect of nature's wants will certainly lead to disease and suffering. A trench should always be dug, and provided with a pole, supported by uprights, at a properly selected spot at a moderate distance from camp, as soon as the locality of the latter has been determined upon ; one should be provided for the officers and another for the men. The strictest discipline in regard to the performance of these duties is absolutely essential to health, as well as to decency. Men should never be allowed to void their excrement elsewhere than in the regularly established sinks. In a well regulated camp the sinks are visited daily by a police party, and a layer of earth thrown in, and lime and other disinfecting agents employed to prevent them from becoming offensive and unhealthy. It is the duty of the surgeon to call the attention of the commanding officer to any neglect of this important item of camp police, and also to see that the shambles, where the cattle are slaughtered, are not allowed to become offensive, and that all offal is promptly buried at a sufficient distance from camp, and covered by at least four feet c earth. (Regulations, par. 505, 513.) Except when impossible for military reasons, the site of a camp should be selected for the dryness of its soil, its proximity to fresh water of good quality, and shelter from high winds. It should be on a slight declivity, in order to facilitate drainage, and not in the vicinity of swamps or stagnant water. A trench, at least eighteen inches deep, should be dug around each tent, to secure dryness, and these should lead into other main drains or gutters, by which the water will be conducted away from the tents. Sleeping upon damp ground causes dysentery and fevers. A tarpaulin or India rubber cloth is a good protection ; straw or hay are desirable, when fresh and frequently renewed ; fresh hemlock, pine, or cedar boughs make a healthy bed. When occupied for any time, a flooring of planks should be secured for the tents, if possible, but this must be taken up, and the earth exposed to the sun, at least every week. The tents for the men should be placed as far from each other as the " Regulations" and the dimensions of the camp permit (never less than two paces); crowding is always injurious to health. (Regulations, p. 508.) No refuse, slops, or excrement should be allowed to be deposited in the trenches for drainage around the tents. Each tent should be thoroughly swept out daily, and the materials used for bedding aired and sunned, if possible ; the canvas should be raised freely at its base, and it should be kept open as much as possible during the daytime, in dry weather, in order to secure ventilation, for tents are liable to become very unhealthy if not constantly and thoroughly aired. Free ventilation should also be secured at night by opening and raising the base of the tent to as great an extent as the, weather will permit. The crowding of men in tents for sleeping is highly injurious to health, and will always be prevented by a commanding officer who is anxious for the welfare of his men. Experience has proved that sleeping beneath simple sheds of canvas, or even in the open air, is less dangerous to health than overcrowding in tents. No more than five men should ever be allowed to sleep in a common army tent of the kind most commonly in use. The men should sleep in their shirts and drawers, removing the shoes, stockings, and outer clothing, except when absolutely impracticable. Sleeping in the clothes is never so refreshing, and is absolutely unhealthy. The men should never be allowed to sleep in wet clothing, or under a wet blanket, if it can be possibly avoided ; and, after being wetted, all articles of clothing and blankets should be thoroughly dried and sunned before being used. After a thorough wetting there is no serious danger as long as the body is kept in motion ; but the wet clothes should be replaced by dry shirt and drawers before sleeping, otherwise there is danger of talking cold, and of other grave forms of disease. If the men are deficient in the necessary supply of clothing for a change, the surgeon should report the fact to the commanding officer. Camp fires should be allowed whenever admissible ; they are useful for purifying the air, for preventing annoyance from insect, for drying clothing, and for security against chilliness during the night. The under-clothing should be washed and thoroughly dried once a week. The men should bathe, or wash the whole body with water, at least once a week, and oftener when practicable, but the feet should be bathed daily, and the stockings washed whenever soiled. The hair and beard should be closely cropped. If vermin make their appearance, apply promptly to the surgeon for means to destroy them. Extra soap may be procured on recommendation of the surgeon. It is the immediate duty of non-commissioned officers in command of squads to see that these, and all other precautions required for the health of the men, are strictly carried out under the orders of the company and medical officers. When bowel complaints are prevalent, be especially observant of the rules for preserving health, and apply to the surgeon for a flannel bandage to be worn constantly around the belly. It is wise and prudent, when ague and fevers are prevalent, that every man should take a dose of quinine bitters at least once in twenty-four hours. This will surely serve as a safeguard against an attack of disease ; it has been practiced in Florida and elsewhere with undoubted benefit. The men should not be over-drilled. It is likely to beget disgust for drill, and to defeat its object. Three drills a day, of one hour each, for squads, and a proportionate length of time, when sufficiently advanced, for battalion drill, is more profitable than double the time similarly occupied. When practicable, amusements, sports, and gymnastic exercises should be favored among the men, such as running, leaping, wrestling, fencing, bayonet exercise, cricket, base-ball, foot-ball, quoits, etc., etc. On a march take especial care of the feet. Bathe them every night before sleeping, not in the morning. Select a shoe of stout, soft leather, with a broad sole, and low heel. Prefer woolen socks. If the feet begin to chafe, rub the socks with common soap where they come in contact with the sore places. An old soldier drinks and eats as little as possible while marching. The recruit, on the contrary, is continually munching the contents of his haversack, and using his canteen ; it is a bad habit, and causes more suffering in the end. The commencement of the day's march should be prompt. Nothing tires the men so much as hanging around a camp, waiting for the word to start. It is a great comfort to the men to halt for ten or fifteen minutes at the end of the first half hour ; many, about this time, require to attend to the calls of nature. After this there should be a halt of ten or fifteen minutes at the end of every hour, with a rest of twenty minutes in the middle of the day for lunch. A longer halt than this stiffens the men and renders subsequent marching difficult. The best rule is to get through the day's march, and rest in camp, if possible, by two o'clock P.M. The best pace to adopt, in marching, is from 90 to 100 steps (of 28 inches each) to the minute; this will give a rate of from 2 1/2 to 2 3/4 miles to the hour. In continuous marches, the leading companies should be alternated each day, as it is always less fatiguing to be in advance. At the close of a day's march every man should bathe his feet, and wash his stockings, and get his meal before lying down to rest, removing and changing the under-clothing, if wet. Whenever, on a march, facilities of transportation are available, it is wise to allow the men to put their knapsacks into the wagons ; this is an immense saving of strength, especially to troops unaccustomed to marching. When there is liability to attack, and when the troops are going into battle, this measure is particularly recommended, as the men, under these circumstances, are liable to lose their knapsacks, overcoats, and blankets. In action, the proper position in which to place a wounded or fainting man is flat upon his back, with the head very slightly raised. The most urgent want of a wounded man is water ; if a canteen or cup is not at hand, bring it in a hat or any available vessel. As a rule, cuts, even when extensive, are less dangerous to life than they seem; the contrary is true of bayonet and bullet wounds. Whenever blood is flowing freely from a wound by spirts or jets, there is immediate danger, and, if the wound is situated in one of the limbs, a stout handkerchief or band should be promptly tied loosely around it, between the wound and the heart; a drum-stick, bayonet, ramrod, or jack-knife is to be then inserted between the skin and the bandage, and twisted around until the strangulation of the limb stops the flow of blood, and it should be held thus until the surgeon arrives. In a less urgent case, or where the wound is differently situated, pressure applied directly to its surface, and kept up steadily, will often save life. Wounded men should always be handled with extreme care, especially if bones are broken. The medical assistants are always provided with spirits and anodynes. It is by no means necessary that a bullet should always be extracted; they often remain in the body, and do little or no harm, much less, in fact, than might be done in attempts to remove them.

-http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/civil-war/1861/august/soldiers-health.htm


Off The Battlefield Edit

Drug Availability Edit

This highly interesting paper has been furnished through the kind mediation of Walter L. Fleming, Ph. D., Professor of History in West Virginia University, and the author of the important and thoughtful "Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama," etc. Dr. Fleming is a diligent and conscientious delver and makes effective use of his devoted investigations. The prayer due is that such exponents be multiplied! The author of the valuable article, which it is a privilege to preserve in these pages, was born in August, 1859. His father was a defender of the righteous Southern cause, serving as a member of the 14th Georgia C. S. A. The son, Joseph Jacobs, at the early age of thirteen, became an apprentice to the distinguished physician-pharmacist Dr. Crawford W. Long, the discoverer of the use of ether as an anesthetic--one of the greatest boons ever conferred on humanity, as is justly urged in glowing tribute, and whose claim as the original discoverer is cogently maintained in an article in the by his pupil, now a leading druggist in Atlanta, and whose progressive spirit does honor to his famous preceptor. The admirable paper covers a much broader field than its title, "Some of the Drug Conditions," would imply, as it comprehends the conditions governing the supply of many other articles of vital importance in the stupendous struggle of the South. Dr. Jacobs writes that the facts presented by him, were "gathered from various sources, by interviewing men who were in the drug business during the war, and by having access to many interesting and valuable papers."
Some references for those interested may be added: "The Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests," by Francis Payre Porcher, surgeon P. A. C. S., and prepared and published by order of Surgeon General S. P. Moore in 1863, and the following in the serial volumes of the "Where the South got its Chemicals and Medicines," by Prof. J. W. Mallet, XXI; "Report of Gen. Josiah Gorgas, Ordnance Department," XXIX; "Progress of Medicine in the South," by Dr. Hunter McGuire, XVII; "Memoir of Gen. S. P. Moore," by Dr. Samuel E. Lewis, XXVIII; "Medical History of the C. S. Army and Navy," and "Roster of Medical Officers," by Dr. Joseph Jones, XX and XXII; "Southern Genius, How War Developed It," by Gen. M. C. Butler, XVI; "How the Confederates Changed Naval Warfare," by Gen. D. H. Maury; "Iron Clads and Torpedoes," XXII, and further as to torpedoes IV, V, VI, IX, X, XXII, XXXI; "Resources of the Confederacy in 1865," "Report of Gen. Isaac M. St. John," II, III, and "Contributions of the South to the Greatness of the American Nation," by Gen. C. A. Evans, XXIII.]--EDITOR.
Here, in grand old Maryland, this border State of the by-gone Confederacy, at a time when men of that war generation who fought on either side of a great and memorable conflict, meet with the sons of both in friendly conference, at a time and place where none can be stirred to animosities by recalling the subject, I present a paper relating to the drug trade and the drug conditions as they appeared during the war of 1861-65, especially as they existed in the Southern States.
Whatever may be the final verdict of mankind as to the justice of the cause for which the seceding states engaged in war with their kindred commonwealths, it must follow the recorded admission of the heroism and magnanimity of the Southern people in maintaining that brave struggle in arms against the proud and wealthier section of our common country; and just as sure as that now the old soldiers of the South and their sons, stand as ready to answer any call of our splendid Union of States against any and every foe, as the old soldiers of the North and their sons, just as sure are the hearts of all willing to still all sentiments in reference to the old conflict of arms, excepting such as spring from pride in the valor of those who wore the blue and those who wore the gray.
There are few American citizens, to-day, who would not rejoice if the bloody record, of that war, with its story of suffering and death, had no place in history. Would that we, as brother Americans, had never been compelled to witness any of the scenes or consequences of that sad conflict, and that our children should never have been called upon to turn the pages of its annals.
We cannot doubt the existence of genuine reconciliation now, since the calls that have so recently assembled our gallant boys from every State in our Union, and who, mingled together, have illustrated the common valor of Americans in arms against the Spanish hosts, and whose, acts of heroism are now recorded in never dying lines that shall commemorate the worth of North and South, and East and West, alike.
As pharmacists, rejoicing in the existence of a truly re-united county, we should recognize that we must ever stand ready to do our part should foemen ever invade our territory, standing true and firm though we should be isolated from all the nations of the earth; and, so, looking back over the days of the war between the States, I have endeavored to see if there were not some lessons to be learned from the adversities in which the Southern people found themselves in the matters that particularly relate to our profession. For, when a people is put in straits and when overwhelming necessities confront them, invention is stimulated, experiment prompted, and, out of their very helplessness, often, intelligence is aroused, and action follows, which evolves new and valuable accomplishments.
The Southern people prior to the war were almost exclusively an agricultural people. The broad acres of the South yearly whitened in fleecy cotton, or waved with yellow grain, or sent forth from their soil the cane and rice harvests, or pastured the flocks within their confines. At the beginning of the war, except at Richmond and a few of the more northerly cities, there were very few machinery plants, and the factories and foundries which produced articles of cotton, or wool, or brass, or iron or steel, were small in number and in the extent and variety of their productiveness. The splendid waters of the Carolinas and of Georgia that now mingle the music of their falling with the hum and whir of textile mills, wasted over their rocks as they ran to the sea by the cotton fields in the broad, alluvial valleys. Boats that ran up the Mississippi and Ohio were laden with the cotton and what of Texas and the sugar and syrup of Louisiana, or the imported products of the Gulf countries, and they returned freighted with coal and iron, and all the varied manufactured products of the North and East. Tennessee, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Virginia were dotted with granaries and tobacco barns, and sent their "cattle from a thousand hills" into the markets of the country. Florida and Mississippi were largely engaged, besides in the production of the usual Southern crops, in furnishing the fruits of their orchards and the output of their fisheries to commerce. The inexhaustible beds of iron ore and manganese and coal of Georgia and Alabama and Tennessee were still unexplored, and the vast quarries of Georgia marble and granite, now yielding rich profits to Northern investments, were then overlooked and unworked.
It can be imagined that a territory like this, unprepared for war and sustaining an ignorant slave population which amounted to at least two-fifths of the whole number of persons, suddenly confronted by an armed conflict, and at once invested by vigorous, watchful, and competent blockading fleets, full of natural resources, deficient in organized industries, rich in the possession of men of intellect and executive capacity, would be met by a situation calling forth every talent and resource of its people.
Side by side in the columns of the newspapers, with the stirring appeals to patriotism in editorial language and poetic meter, were official orders and advertisements; and scientific and literary men vied with one another in publishing suggestions and hints and descriptions of processes that would be useful in directing the minds of the people toward solving the problem of supplying necessary munitions of war, and all the articles for camp and field and hospital and household use.
To say nothing of the destruction of property and of the whole labor system of the South, with its attendant losses, some idea of the extent of the effects of that war may be gathered by reciting a few facts from official data.
Eleven out of the thirty-four States seceded. The men of military age, from eighteen to forty-five on the Southern side numbered 1,064,193, including lame, halt and blind, etc. On the Union side were more than four to one, or 4,559,892, not estimating monthly accessions from the world at large. In enlisted men the numbers were, for the South, 600,000; for the North, 2,865,000. The slave States of Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, West Virginia and Tennessee, gave to the Union 300,000 men. Thus there were in the field four armies of the North, each as large as the entire Confederate forces, not including the 300,000 contributed by the slave States.
In numbers the Federal loss was 67,058 killed and 43,012 died of wounds; of Confederates, 53,873 were killed, and 194,026 was the number of killed and wounded on the fields of battle. More than one-third of the Confederates were confided to the surgeons, besides the sick and wounded prisoners of war.
The Confederate government, immediately after the formation of a provisional government at Montgomery, were confronted by strong facts and large figures as to supplies for the different departments. Agents were sent at once to Europe, most of whom were in London, and where they established a weekly newspaper, with local correspondents in nearly every Southern town from Virginia to Texas. Instructions were given that, as there were only two sources of supply, capture and blockade running, importance was to be given to securing first, arms and ammunition; second, clothing, including boots, shoes, and hats; third, drugs and chemicals, such as were most pressingly needed, as quinine, chloroform, ether, opium, morphine, rhubarb, etc. These agents were instructed to see that all blockade runners or any transport ships, barks or brigantines, that were clearing for Southern ports for cargoes of cotton or naval stores, were loaded with the above enumerated articles; the cargoes to be consigned to individuals, firms or agents of the government at any port to which they cleared.
At the outset of the struggle the question of drugs and medicines was the third in importance, and the druggists of the South had either to manufacture what they could from native barks and leaves and herbs and roots, or purchase at the Southern ports such supplies as the blockade runners brought in that were not intended for the government. In most cases these cargoes were offered at auction. This was a custom at Galveston, New Orleans, Mobile, Charleston, Pensacola, Savannah, and Wilmington. The Gulf cities received large supplies from Cuba, while in Texas there was almost a continuous train of contrabanders, or smugglers, bringing goods across the Rio Grande from Mexico, but not much of this was medicine.
As to capture, while the army frequently captured the wagon trains of the enemy, thus obtaining some supplies of medicines and surgical appliances, these were barely sufficient to supply the most distressing needs in the army; so, it may be seen that home manufacture and blockade running were the only source of supply during nearly four years for between six and seven millions of people.
The interior towns suffered most, such places as Jackson, Meridian, Columbus and Aberdeen in Mississippi; Selma, Montgomery, Eufala, and Huntsville, in Alabama; Albany, Macon, Augusta, Athens, Rome and Atlanta in Georgia; Spartanburg, Greenville and Columbia, in South Carolina; Fayetteville, Goldsboro, Raleigh, Statesville and Charlotte, in North Carolina; and Danville, Lynchburg, Petersburg and Richmond, in Virginia. In nearly all of these towns one or more druggists manufactured from stock on hand of roots, herbs, and barks, or from home supply of such medicinal plants as he could secure, tinctures and like preparations.
The supply of whiskey was not so short as that of medicines. The so-called "moonshiners" of the mountains of North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia kept their stills, (often called gum-logs) running night and day, and could find a ready sale for all they produced. So far as I can learn, no tax was placed on whiskey. In New Orleans rum was made from molasses, one distillery turned out over one hundred barrels of this product every day for over a year.
Amongst the scarcest articles in a drug store in those days were paper, twine and corks. Some of the stores obtained old life-pre-servers from abandoned river boats and got a supply, thus, of hand-cut stoppers. Various fabrics were pressed together for small stoppers, and for large bottles, demijohns and jugs, different sized corn-cobs commanded the same price as xxx corks do to-day. In the museums of New York, Washington and Chicago can be seen some of the specimens of the attempts to manufacture glass bottles in Louisiana, Alabama and South Carolina.
In the interior districts and small villages the country doctors returned to the first principles and to the use of the plants of the fields and forests; and these agencies were about all they had to rely on, outside of whiskey and a little quinine, the latter frequently at $100 an ounce.Interviewing one of our old Confederate surgeons, he said: "During the early part of the war, I was placed in charge of a railroad hospital in a small town where it was difficult to obtain medicine at almost any cost, and as I had my little hospital crowded nearly all the time, both with employes of the road and wounded and sick soldiers, afflicted with various diseases and all kinds of wounds and injuries, and being also engaged in general practice, it naturally followed that my mind was severely taxed in order to supply the remedies and substitutes to meet the demands of such varied practice. I perused my dispensary and called into requisition an old botanic practice which had been handed down as a relic of the past, but from which I confess to have received valuable aid and very many useful hints in regard to the medical virtues of our native plants. I give you the following facts from a record I kept of the patients treated, and the remedies I used, and the principal substances I resorted to:Nearly every old practitioner in the South, to-day, is full of such reminiscences as the foregoing. Notwithstanding the restrictions in inter-state commerce and the almost exclusive reliance on blockade runners for supplies, many druggists in these Southern towns and cities displayed much ingenuity in the disposition of the stocks bought at auction at the seaports.
Mr. B. Metcalf, of Montgomery, relates that he attended an auction sale, at Mobile, on one occasion, and, arriving late, found the cargo all sold except cod-liver oil and bees wax, which he succeeded in purchasing. His two barrels of cod-liver oil and 600 pounds of bees-wax were immediately reshipped to Montgomery on the Alabama river. Filling every shape and size bottle to be found, and placing a judicious advertisement in the papers, he was enabled to sell the oil, but what to do with the bees-wax was a puzzler. Discovering a set of candle moulds and using cotton yarn as a wick, he ran the entire mass into candles and succeeded in selling the whole stock at ten cents apiece.
Nashville fell early in the action, and there was but little suffering there on account of failure to obtain medical supplies. One incident is related there showing the shrewdness of druggists at Nashville. When it became known that all manufacturing enterprises would be blown up on the evacuation of the town, a shrewd druggist went around and succeeded in buying all the window glass in town. Three days later the explosions, on the retreat of the Confederates, broke one-half the window glass in the city, and Mr. S. reaped a rich harvest from his corner in window glass.
Various small attempts were made to manufacture chemicals at Knoxville, Tenn., Greenville, S. C., Columbia, S. C., and Milledgeville and Macon, Ga., but, outside of producing a few gun caps and nitre for making gunpowder and a few carboys of sulphuric acid for charging the torpedoes in Charleston harbor, very little was accomplished. Later on, some small manufacturing was done at Richmond and Charlotte, but, owing to the want of machinery and proper apparatus, little was achieved. A blockade runner brought into Wilmington, N. C., a supply of apparatus for making sulphuric acid, which arrived only a few days before the city fell. Much might have been accomplished with this but for the fall of Wilmington, as the plant was said to be first-class, and, it is said, was disposed of for a large sum to a Philadelphia manufacturer.
The excessive high price of quinine made its handling a profitable employment. Almost every means known to human ingenuity were employed to smuggle it through the lines. Small packages were placed in letters which the Adams Express Company would guarantee for the sum of two dollars to deliver to the postoffice authorities at some point in the Confederacy. Officers speculating in it, buying and selling until this created a scandal almost equal to that of speculating in cotton, and it was finally stopped by a strong proclamation.
A large contraband trade was carried on by an almost continuous line of house-boats floating on the Mississippi river. When opposite Memphis the goods were either sent in at night or into the interior of Arkansas, where trusty parties soon disposed of the stock. The great bulk of this trade was sent out by traders and speculators in Paducah, Ky., and Cairo, Il1., and their main points of operation were Memphis, Tenn., Helena, Ark., Napoleon, Ark., and Greenville, Miss. In regard to Napoleon, very few of this generation ever heard of the town, nor can it be found on the maps of the present day; yet in war time Napoleon, Arkansas, was a town of nearly 3,000 people, well built with brick business houses, and contained a large United States marine hospital, built of brick; and situated as it was on the Mississippi, at the mouth of the Arkansas river, it was at one time a rival of Memphis for trade. This village was entirely destroyed by flood in 1869 or 1870; the last vestige of the large marine hospital was carried into the Mississippi river in 1874, and to-day there is not a human habitation to show where Napoleon once flourished.
One of my Alabama lawyer friends, an ex-Confederate, famous for learning, for valor as a soldier, and for delightful humor as a reconteur, once related to me the following reminiscences:
To supply the trying necessities of the drug demand, he said he had heard of many amusing plans that were resorted to by the government itself, and by persons who were mainly prompted by neither impulses of humanity nor patriotism, but by the simple desire of gain. He said he heard of a woman who went into the Northern lines four times, returning always with a considerable quantity of the more costly drugs concealed beneath her skirts. On her return from the fifth trip, however, some portion of her paraphernalia, while on a ferry boat, was caught in a way to put too great a strain on some string or buckle, so that it gave way, and the walking drugstore was brought down to "dire combustion."
A Mr. Berg, a merchant of middle Alabama, says my Alabama friend, at the beginning of the war found himself with empty shelves and counters and no market from which to replenish his stock. He had some experience in the sale of drugs and medicines, so he determined to occupy his genius, being too old to go to the war, by carrying on a contraband trade in this profitable direction. He started on a dangerous enterprise as the South had interdicted trade in cotton and the North had placed the ban on drugs--especially on stimulating liquors. Mr. Berg selected Memphis as the base of his operations, and proceeded up to the northern part of Mississippi, a country alternately in the hands of the Confederates and the Federals. Here he purchased a common road wagon and four mules, and loaded the wagon with cotton. In a few days he arrived, with an assistant, within the Federal lines at Memphis, where he disposed of his cotton at war figures, for United States money. His wagoner, having received his reward, deserted, and Berg could find no one to go back with him to the South. He was about to abandon his enterprise of investing in drugs and medicines or lack of proper means of transportation, when he accidentally, while looking after his own team and wagon, discovered a two-horse vehicle, considerably battered and disfigured, but surmounted by a white cloth covering, over which was a small yellow hospital flag, and upon the sides of which were painted in large letters "SMALL-POX." In a short time Berg had exchanged his four-horse vehicle for the smaller one, and selecting two of his best mules, hit upon the idea of transposing his hospital wagon into a blockade runner. He soon had a stock of quinine, morphine, ether and such other drugs as promised the greatest profit, stored away in a box under the yellow flag, and over these he placed several layers of leather fronts for making [cotton and wool cards, over these some cheap clothing, and as a last layer scattered promiscuously a collection of such articles as are usually carried in a peddler's pack, including cambric needles. The enterprise might have been entirely successful had not Berg determined to add to his stock an eight-gallon keg of good rye whiskey, then exceedingly scarce in his native region.
Berg proceeded on his journey very slowly. The roads were bad, his team weak, and he inexperienced. The yellow flag upon his wagon and the legend upon its sides accomplished fully all that he had expected from them, so far as keeping him unmolested and preventing his contraband cargo from being detected. They were equal to the ancient cry, "Make way for the Leper."
Berg himself grew quite travel stained, and to ordinary observation had but recently recovered from the small-pox. The end of the fourth day found his stock of provisions, both for man and beast, entirely exhausted, while every attempt on his part to approach a farm-house in order to obtain these necessities was met with threats and the barking of dogs, and he and his teams went into a supperless camp. The next morning he concealed himself some distance from the highway, tied his mules out in a swamp to graze, and, having scrubbed himself up in a neighboring stream, started out afoot in hope of finding some farm-house remote from the highway where he might negotiate for provisions. Before starting, however, in order to fortify himself against the fatigue of the journey, Berg for the first time uncovered his hidden keg and drew off a bottle of its costly contents, drinking some of it before starting. An hour's wandering brought him at last to a farm which gave promise of creature comfort and refreshment. There was a woman in possession of the house as Berg approached, who forbade his coming any nearer to the gate, firmly and positively denying all his entreaties to save him from starvation. At last, however, she told Berg, who had so far forced his way into her presence that she detected the smell of whiskey, that if he would furnish her a bottle of that article she would, in exchange, give him food for himself and his mules; and, as this was the only alternative, the bargain was made and she went to work preparing the provisions, while Berg returned to the wagon with the bottle which she furnished. Berg had just finished his chicken and onions and bread, and the mules disposed of their fodder, and everything was in readiness for the journey to be renewed, when, with shout and clattering hoofs, four blue-coated troopers rode up. In some way they had gotten hold of the whiskey from the woman and learned from her the source of supply, and tracked Berg to his camp. They had drank enough whiskey to render them utterly indifferent to death or contagion in any form, and while Berg was swearing he had no whiskey, they were prying into the wagon and were emptying the keg through its bung hole into their tin-cups as freely as if it were branch water; and then they began to torment poor Berg with all manner of pranks and tricks. Finally, one of them determined to make him swallow a paper of the cambric needles, and had actually placed them on his tongue, handing him a cup of his own whiskey and threatening to cut him down with their swords unless he swallowed the needles with a draught of whiskey.
Berg said that at that moment he lost consciousness, and did not know whether he swallowed the needles or not; that when he awoke a man was bending over him asking what was the matter with him. The shouts of the drunken soldiers had attracted a party of Confederates, who, coming up unawares, had killed two of Berg's for-mentors and wounded one severely, allowing only one to escape. In such conditions as these, it is not to be wondered at that every kind of makeshift and substitution had to be resorted to in the field, in the drugstore and upon the farms and in the household.
Many times the Confederate soldiers marched and camped and fought on half rations. The full ration was meager enough. As prescribed it was as follows: 3/4 lbs. of pork or bacon, or 1 1/4 lbs. fresh beef; 18 oz. bread or flour, or 1 1/4 lbs. corn meal. On campaigns or marches or on transports the ration of hard bread was one pound.
The following will give an idea of the economy that was enjoined in the matter of supplying general and post hospitals, the amounts stated being quantities for one year for one thousand troops: Acetic acid, 5 lbs.; arsenic, 5 oz.; muriatic acid, 8 lbs.; sulphuric acid, 8 lbs.; tartaric acid, 16 lbs.; sulphuric ether, 16 lbs.; alcohol 192 pint bottles; ammonia, 5 lbs; nitrate of silver, 8 oz.; assafoetida, 32 ozs.; camphor, 16 lbs.; catechu, 5 lbs.; cerea albae, 16 lbs.; chloroform, 8 lbs.; copabia, 40 lbs.; creosote, 16 ozs.; adhesive plaster, 40 yards; extract belladona, 16 oz.; fluidi buchu, 8 lbs.; columbae, 8 lbs.; gentian 8 lbs.; glycyrrhiza, 48 lbs.; hyoscyani, 16 ozs.; rhei, 8 lbs.; sarsaparilla, 16 lbs.; senna, 8 lbs.; valerian, 64 ozs.; mercuric chloride, 5 ozs.; iodine 16 ozs.; ammonia, 32 lbs.; magnesia, 5 lbs.; sulphate morphia, 16 drs.; myrrh, 5 lbs.; opium, 5 lbs.; ether, 5 lbs.; jalap, 32 ozs.; cantharides, 16 ozs.; aloes, 32 ozs.; sulphate quinine, 80 to 160 ozs.; sugar, 160 lbs.; strychnia, 8 drs.; digitalis, 32 ozs.; unguenti hydrarg, 8 lbs.
The same sparse quantities were applicable in hospital stores regulations and in the matter of surgical instruments, books, bedding, furniture, dressings, etc., and on the blanks furnished was printed the following: "It is urged that medicinal officers make requisition for such medicines only in the following tables as are deemed indispensable."
Dr. J. Julian Chisholm, professor of surgery in the Medical College of South Carolina, published in 1861 his "Manuel of Military Surgery for the use of the Surgeons in the Confederate Army." This book was widely used, and was a valuable contribution to war surgery, containing, as it does, a most exhaustive collection of hints and instructions relative to the treatment of sick or wounded men in camp, on the field of battle and in the hospital. In his preface he says (in part), as follows: "As our entire army is made up of volunteers from every walk in life, so we find the surgical staff of the army composed of physicians without surgical experience. Most of those who composed the staff were general practitioners, whose country circuit gave them but little surgery and seldom presented a gunshot wound. Moreover, as our country had been enjoying an uninterrupted state of peace, the collecting of large bodies of men and retaining them in health, or the hygiene of armies, had been a study without an object and therefore of little interest."
From my friend, J. F. B. Lillard, of New York, I learn the following names of some druggists who were in business at the South during those trying times: Benjamin Ward, of Mobile; H. Metcalf, at Montgomery, Ala.; J. A. Lee, New Iberia, La.; N. O. Mior, Columbia, S. C. ;John Ingalls, Macon, Ga. ;J. J. Short, Galveston, Tex.; F. S. Duffy, New Bren, S. C.; G. W. Aymer, Charleston, S. C.; S. T. Dernoville, and A. H. Roscoe, Nashville, Tenn.; Robert Carter, Columbus, Ga.; A. Solomons, Savannah, Ga.; Crawford W. Long, Athens, Ga.
To afford an idea of the prices ruling in Richmond, June 1863, I append the articles in some original invoices purchased by R. W. Powers, from Kent, Paine & Co. Some are as follows: Three boxes ext. logwood, 47 lbs. at $4.00 per lb.; 1 keg bicarb, soda, 112 lbs. at $2.75; 1 case brown Windsor soap, $12.75 doz.; 1 bbl. camphor, 86 lbs. at $20.00; 112 lbs. of blue galls at $4; 100 lbs. tartaric acid, $2.25 per lb.; salt, 44c. lb.; hops, $2.50 lb.; I cask French brandy, $52.00 gallon; Indian ink, 75c. bottle; 9 dozen assorted pencils, $4 doz.; phosphorous, $14.00 per lb.; citric acid, $4.50; oil peppermint, $16.50; Epsom salts, $3.87 1/2; 6 bottles capsules, $6.50; 12 pewter syringes, $1.25 each; 2 boxes blue pills, $6.00; 1 bottle syr. Ipecac, $10.00; 15 ozs. quinine, $22.25 per oz.; 60 drs. morphine, $28.00 per dr.; blacking, $1.40 per box; tallow candles, $2.37 per lb.
H. B. Metcalf, of Montgomery, wrote me February last in part as follows: "I find that all my books and papers were destroyed in the fire of last July. We were able to secure some drugs and chemicals during the war by attending the blockade sales at Charleston and Mobile. We did not have to substitute to a great extent in putting up prescriptions--those of us who were fortunate enough to be supplied at the sales. We found great difficulty in securing vials and corks, and were compelled to use second-hand vials, and corks made from tupelo trees answered very well. Prices were, of course, high. For instance, during the last year of the war all tinctures were sold at $1.00 an oz.; quinine, $25.00 per oz.; morphine, $10.00 per dr.; quinine pills, $1.00 each, and other pills $5.00 a dozen. Prescriptions ranged usually from$5.00 to $15.00. Whiskey sold at $150.00 a bottle. You must recollect that greenbacks were worth about twenty times our money, gold 100 times. I imported a great many goods through Evans' Sons, Liverpool, and regret exceedingly I now have none of the invoices."
It was quite an industry, I am told by an Atlanta lady, Mrs. Marcus A. Bell, for the country people to raise castor oil beans. The crushed beans were boiled and the oil skimmed off. She said that the grandmothers of those days revived the traditions of Colonial times. They made their own dyes and coloring matter from the roots and barks of native woods. Dogwood, sumac and the roots of pine trees were largely used, and indigo was cultivated in the gardens. Instead of paregoric, fennel-seed tea was given to the babies.
For rash they used red-oak bark and alum. Goose grease and sorghum, or honey, was a standard remedy for croup, backed up with turpentine and brown sugar. Sassafras tea was given in the spring and fall as a blood medicine. Adults' colds were doctored with horsemint tea and tea from the roots of broom sedge. For eruptions and impure blood, spice-wood tea was given. Wine was made from the berries of the elder bush. For diarrhoea, roots of blackberry and blackberry cordial; and so, also, was a tea made from the leaves of the rose geranium. Mutton suet, sweet gum and the buds of the balm of Gilead was a standard salve for all cuts and sores. Balsam cucumber was widely used as a tonic, and was considered a specific remedy in burns. Catnip, elecampane, and comfrey root and pennyroyal were in every good housewife's pantry, in which, also, was the indispensable string of red peppers, a bag of sage leaves and of "balm." Calamus root for colic in babies was a common dose. The best known standard Georgia tonic was dogwood, poplar and wild cherry barks, equal proportions, chipped fine and put in whiskey and taken wineglassfull at meal times; it is still used in large quantities from "Yamacraw to Nickajack." In hemorrhages, black haw root was commonly used. All the white mustard we had was raised in our gardens.
She learned from experience that barks were best gathered while the sap was running, and when gathered the outer and rougher portion should be shaved off and the bark cut thinly and put in a good position in the shade to dry; that the roots ought to be gathered after the leaves are dead in the fall, or better, before the sap rises; that seeds and flowers must be gathered only when fully ripe, and put in a nice dry place, and that medicinal plants to be secured in the greatest perfection should be obtained when in bloom and carefully dried in the shade.
I here append a list of substitutes that were used by druggists and physicians during the war in large quantities, in most of the instances being the only medicines of the kind to be had:


IMPORTED ARTICLES

Columbo, Quassia Yellow root, Spanish flies, potato bugs, powdered leaves of butternut
Jalap Wild Jalap, Mulberry bark, Butternut, Dock, Wild potato vine, Amer Columbo
Quinine and Peruvian Bark Tulip tree bark, Dogwood, Cotton-seed tea, Chestnut root and bark, Thoroughwort, Spanish oak bark, Knob grass, Willow bark
Digitalis Blood-root, Wild cherry, Pipsissiwa, Bugle weed, Jasmine
Conium American hemlock
Opium American hemlock, Motherwort
Sarsaparilla Wild Sarsaparilla, Soapwort, Yellow parilla, China briar, Queen's delight
Chamomile Dogwood
Flaxseed Watermelon seed
Gum Arabic Low mallows, apple, pear and quince gum, Balm, Watermelon seed
Ergot Cotton-root
Guaiacum Boxwood, Poke, Prickly ash
Ipecac Wild Jalap, Carolina hipps
Mezereon Prickly ash
Kino and Catechu Cranesbill
Senna Wild Senna
Colocynth Alum-root
Tannin Smooth sumac
Olive oil Peanut oil, Beech-nuts oil, Cotton-seed oil
Laudanum Hops, Mother-wort
Acacia Slippery elm bark, Sassafras pith
Bougies Slippery elm bark
Corks Black gum roots, Tupelo wood, Corn -cobs
Allspice Spice-bush
Pink root Cardinal flower
Assafoetida Wild chamomile
Calomel Dandelion, Pleurisy root, Butterfly weed
Belladonna and Hyoscyamus Jamestown weed
Valerian Lady' s slipper
Colchicum Indian poke

From various physicians, intelligent ladies, and from old Confederate magazines and books and newspapers, I have gathered the following data in reference to the peculiar and unusual uses of articles that are incident to our trade, that seemed to be of more or less general employment in the South by physicians, druggists and in Confederate households.
Wood anemone was employed as a vesicatory in removing corns from the feet. Powdered may-apple mixed with resin was used as a caustic in treating horses, the farriers using it for escharotic purposes. On the farms the juice of the pulp of the maypop seeds was made into a summer drink instead of lemonade. Powdered blood-root, snuffed up the nose, made a powerful sternutatory and was applied as an escharotic to fungous flesh. Pond-lily poultices was extensively applied to ulcers. Button snakeroot, or globe flower, was used largely as an expectorant and diuretic. Tooth-ache bark (aralia spinosa) was used to allay pain caused by carious teeth, and in South Carolina the negroes relied on it almost exclusively for rattlesnake bite. Side-saddle or fly-catcher was used in the various forms of dyspepsia. Ink was made from the rind of the pomegranate fruit and from poke berries. Where during convalescence an astringent tonic was indicated, dogwood supplied the need. This with blackberry and gentians and pipsissiwa as tonics and diuretics, and sweet gum, and sassafras for mucilaginous and aromatic properties, and wild jalap as a cathartic, supplied the surgeon in camp with easily procurable medicinal plants, which proved sufficient in many times of need.
I here relate another reminiscence of my Alabama soldier friend, Col. Sumpter Lea, of Birmingham, using his own language as near as I may be able to repeat it.
"I never heard of but one physician who was promoted on the field. The army once encamped at Tullahoma, Tenn., and obtained their water from a small stream which flowed as well as it could through a dense wood, where the leaves were as thick as in the 'vale of Vallambrosa.' The eddying pools were crystal, bright and clear, but disease and death lurked in their beautiful eddies, for bowel diseases were produced, unusually, among officers and men, and, in the abscence of any pharmaceutical attachment to the army, it was without remedy until Dr. Cowan, attached as a physician to a Tennessee regiment, adopted the use of what is now the famous tablespoon remedy, consisting of a tablespoon of Epsom salts, and equal quantities of bicarbonate soda and laudanum, this dissolved in water and taken a tablespoonful at a dose. This remedy acted magically, and being so widely adopted, attracted the notice of General Forrest, who, out of admiration and gratitude, promoted Dr. Cowan to his personal staff with rank of major. There was another who ought to have been promoted for this same sort of service, for diseases of the bowels, during long encampments, became pestilential. The food, especially the bread, when prepared by the ordinary mess soldier, seemed to be especially invented for the production of irritation. Such camp-made biscuit would these days prove a successful rival and threaten the 'rubber trust.'
"An Alabama surgeon named Langhorne, with his hospital assistant, a good-natured fellow called 'Sonk,' grieving over these miseries, determined to find a remedy in his total lack of drugs for these multiplied woes, characterized under the synonyms 'diree' and 'diseremus.' After drawing largely on all their genius, they invented a pill composed of equal parts of red pepper and crude rosin, the latter of which they gathered from the nearby trees, and which they consigned to immortality under the name of the 'Diseremus Pill.' It was amusing, despite the sadness of the scene, to watch the doctor and his assistant, each with their cup full of their invention, going out to meet the weak and melancholy throng, who, in answer to the surgeon's call, emerged from their tents, morning after morning, and in single file marched wearily and languidly along, each in turn receiving in his feverish palm a dozen or more of 'Diseremus Pill,' with the laconic instructions to 'take two after each loose operation'; and even these instructions, when the tongue of the doctor grew weary with their constant repetition, was shortened into a sort of ejaculation as the pills were dropped, after each 1oose,' this grew into a sort of by-word about the camp."
The bark of the dogwood and swamp willow was mixed with tobacco for smoking. Watermelon juice was made into syrup, and the rind into preserves. The seed of the watermelon and those of the gourd were used as a diuretic. Gourd rind was used as mould for buttons. The ladies of St. John's Parish, S. C., used prickly pear for hardening tallow in candle making, one pound to four pounds of tallow taking the place of wax. The hand-leaved violet formed an emollient application. Red maple made an astringent wash.
In the process of dyeing it was found that maple and sweet gum barks with copperas made purple; maple, red oak and copperas, dove color; maple and walnut, brown; sweet gum and copperas, nearly black; peach tree leaves and alum gave yellow; the artichoke and black oak bark also gave yellow; sassafras root with copperas, a drab; smooth sumac, root and bark and berries, gave black; black oak bark with a basis of alum gave a bright yellow; with oxide of tin, tints from pale yellow to bright orange; with oxide of iron, a drab; black oak galls in a solution of vitriol made purple, which as it grows stronger, passed into a black; alum and alder, yellow; hickory bark and copperas, olive; hickory bark and alum, green; white oak and alum, brown; walnut root and leaves, alone, black; blacksmith's dust was frequently used in place of copperas.
Buckeye lotion was used for gangrenous ulcers, and by some for the toothache.
Among the substitutes for coffee, at home and in camp, the following were a part: Rye, parched okra seeds, cotton seeds, parched sweet potatoes, parched corn hominy, peanuts. It was stated in printed articles "that half the coffee sold in New York and Boston the past twenty-five years has been composed chiefly of rye."
Cotton-seed decoction was used for inflammation in mucous passages. The roots of the cotton plant were employed in asthma, and by the negroes as an abortant. Soap was made from cotton seed by treating them direct with lye.
Among the substitutes for tea were Ceanothus Americanus, known as red root, or New Jersey tea, and holly leaves and blackberry and raspberry leaves and rose leaves.
The Amelia azedarach (China berry) furnished some valuable uses. The berries were employed in making whiskey; the bark of the root used as an anthelmintic. The leaves were said to prevent "botts" in horses, and were used to pack with dried fruits to preserve them from ravages of insects. A soap was made from the berries, called "Poor Man's Soap."
The ox-eyed daisy was used in place of Persian insect powder--an insecticide used as far back as 1857. In the country, fresh elderberry leaves were laid near the head of a bed-ridden person to keep away flies.
In the households on the farms many interesting expedients were resorted to. The newspapers were full of directions about soap-making and for preparing and obtaining the materials. The Richmond and Wilmington published minute directions for making soda from sea-weed and corn-cobs, and receipts for making soaps.
Blackberry wine was used almost exclusively as a substitute for foreign wines, and some wine was also made from wild grapes and the berries of the elder bush. All the newspapers published recipes for making these wines, and there is scarcely a housewife in the South who does not know how to make them to perfection.
In the Mobile I find the following: "To alleviate the suffering and perhaps save the lives of many of our soldiers, when sickness may be traced to the use of unwholesome water in limestone regions, blackberry cordial is recommended. The following is a good receipt: Bruise the berries and strain through a bag; to each quart of juice add half a pound of loaf sugar, heaped teaspoonful of powdered cinnamon, the same of cloves, and a grated nutmeg; boil twenty minutes, skimming well. When cool add half pint of brandy for each quart, or add good whiskey."
Compound syrup of blackberries was recommended and used as a vehicle for medicines. It was made by adding half ounce each of cinnamon, allspice, nutmeg, cloves, to half a gallon blackberries. These were boiled twenty minutes in a kettle and strained through a piece of flannel. To this was added loaf sugar to make it very sweet, and half pint of cognac brandy to two quarts.
A decoction of the blackberry root and the rind of the pomegranate fruit boiled in milk was a common remedy in diarrhoea.
The roots and leaves of the cockleburr were considered serviceable in passive hemorrhages, diarrhoea, gonorrhoea, and as a deobstruent in obstructions of the spleen and diseases arising from torpid liver.
One or two ounces of a decoction of Indian physic root (Gillonia trifloriata) was given as one emetic, the dose of the powdered root being thirty grains, persisted in until vomiting occurred.
The liquor called piquette was largely substituted for cider, wine and beer. It was considered to serve as a tonic, and tended to quench thirst. Directions for making it was as follows: Water was filtered through the pressed and fermented mash of grapes. The mashed grapes were put into a cask, pressed very full, and afterwards hermetically sealed and put in a cool place. When to be used, the head was taken out of the cask, water was added until the whole mass was moistened and water stood on top. Thus, at the end of the fourth or fifth day the liquor could be drawn off for daily use, the place of the portion used being furnished by a new supply of water. In this way a cask of thirty-six gallons furnished about four gallons of piquette for about twenty days. Piquette was also made from pears, cherries, plums, figs and juniper berries. The rinds of oranges, lemons and aromatic plants, angelica roots, peach leaves, etc., were often added when the drink was too sweet.
Engravers found that the different woods were of hardness as follows: First, the wild current or service tree and the apple or pear; next, the dog-wood, red-berry (azalea nudiflora), and kalmia latifolia; then the holly, when well dried; but of all, the boxwood was preferred.
The peach tree furnished a number of uses. The gum was used instead of gum arabic; a tea of the leaves given in whooping cough; the leaves used to season creams instead of vanilla; the leaves used in dying.
Beer was made from maize, the persimmon and the sweet locust. Calycanthus (sweet shrub) was employed as an and-spasmodic tonic in cases of chronic agues, a strong decoction of the bark of the root or of the seed being given. It was noticed that the root was strongly camphorated.
As an antidote for poison oak the bruised leaves of the Collinsonia canadensis (stone root) were employed; and also the Verbena urticifolia.
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac) was used as a gargle for cleansing the mouth in putrid fevers; and a decoction of the root employed in gonorrhoea and gleet. A vinegar was made from the berries.
Beech-tree leaves, collected in autumn in dry weather, were used for filling beds, the odor being grateful and they being very elastic.
Black oak was considered efficacious in leucorrhoea, amenorrhoea, chronic hysteria, diarrhoea, rheumatism, cynanche, tonsillaris and asthma. The powder of the bark, mixed with lard, was a remedy in painful hemorrhoids, and used as a fomentation in pro-lapsus uteri and ani, and for deflections in these parts.
I quote from an article of Dr. Daniel Lee, in the of 1860: "It is poor economy for the South to destroy all its valuable tan-bark in clearing oak land, cutting rail timber and firewood, and thereby deprive our descendants of the power to manufacture their own leather. To send a million dollars worth of hides to the North, have them tanned into leather, made into shoes, boots, saddles and harness for Southern consumption, is to pay about eight million dollars for the support of that Northern economy which never wastes the bark that grows on oak and hemlock trees, and that industry which turns this bark into gold." Such advice as the following was published: "Every farmer ought to save all the tan-bark that he can, for we speak advisedly when we say that the Confederate States are even now short of oak bark if they are to manufacture all the leather they are to consume in saddles, bridles, harness, saddle-bags, buggy and carriage harness, caps and hat linings, book bindings, boots and shoes. Since the mechanical trades are essential to our happiness, we should encourage our sons to become scientific mechanics as well as farmers, lawyers, doctors, priests and soldiers."
As substitutes for hemp the following were used: The sunflower stalk, Asclepias syriaca, Urtica diæcia and Yucca filamentosa, or bear grass. The juice of the skin of the blue fig made a red ink. Fig twigs were used as pipe stems. Rope was made of wahoo (Ulmus alata), and used in baling cotton. Wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera) was employed in making candles, and as a basis for fine soap. The soap was obtained from the berries by boiling and skimming. Four pounds of the wax made forty pounds of the soap, with other ingredients counted. Candles made by the addition of grease are of a green color. Says the of 1861: "We have been so long dependent on our Yankee enemies for soap and candles that we have forgotten that we can make them ourselves. To our shame, we admit that even on our plantations in the low country and seaboard there are abundant materials for making the best candles in the world, but millions of pounds have been permitted annually to decay unused. The low bush myrtle, indigenous to our coast from Virginia, south, the berries of which are now mature, will afford a supply of wax that, with the addition of one-third tallow, will furnish candles sufficient to light every house in the Confederacy for the next year. So, also, on every plantation, nay, in almost every kitchen, the monthly waste of, ashes and grease, with the addition of a little lime and salt, and the labor of one person for one day, will make soap enough for our purposes. why should we continue to pay the Yankees 30 cents a pound for soap and 60 cents for candles?" Candies in war time were made of rosin. A model, economical candle, sixty yards long, was recommended for the camp and for plantation purposes; it was said to burn six hours a night for six months, and all at a cost of only a few cents. One pound of beeswax was added to three-fourths pound of rosin, and melted together; four threads of slack-twisted cotton was used for a wick, and drawn through the melted wax or rosin three or four times, was wound into a ball, which on pulling the end up and lighting, furnished a good candle.
Among the recipes that were published for making soap in the Southern papers, I note the following: 1. Yellow or rosin soap: dissolve one pound of concentrated lye in half a gallon of water and three and a half pounds of fat or tallow, and boil; put in three-fourths pound powdered rosin, and let it boil down by constantly stirring until the soap sticks on the kettle and gets very thick. Put into a mould. 2. Hard fancy soap: dissolve half pound concentrated lye in two and a half pounds of hot water, and let cool; then melt by a low heat five pounds of clear fat or tallow; pour in the lye in a very small stream and stir rapidly. Keep stirring until all has assumed the appearance of thick honey. Let it stand for 24 hours, when it will have set in a fine hard soap, which may be perfumed or variegated with colors by stirring in the desired perfume or coloring matter, just before covering. 3. Soft soap: one pound concentrated lye and three gallons soft water and five pounds of fat or tallow. Boil till the mass grows transparent and all the fat has disappeared. Add fifteen gallons of water and boil a few minutes, and the soap will be ready for use."
In making gunpowder the lighter woods, such as willow, dogwood and alder charcoal were recommended. I append an advertisement taken from the Augusta, Ga., of 1862: "To our contractors--Willow wood wanted! 500 cords will be contracted for, to be delivered on the line of the canal at the government powder factory at Augusta, Ga., at the rate of not less than 100 cords a month, commencing December 1st next."
Out of the wood of the white poplar, split into shavings like tape or braid, the stuff called sparterie was made, used in the manufacture of hats. It is said that one workman with the aid of a child to carry off the shavings could keep a dozen plaiters employed.
Shoes were made from canvass for uppers and tupelo wood for soles, for the negroes on the plantations. They had been patented, so it was said, by Henry Wyatt & Co., of New York, who offered wooden-soled brogans for the negroes of the South. Ropes and baskets were made from the bark of the Canada leatherwood.
The following was published concerning the sassafras tree: "The sassafras wood stripped of its bark is very durable and strong, resists worms, etc. It forms an excellent post for gates. Bedsteads made of it are never infested with bugs. The pith of the young shoots and the leaves contain much mucilage and are used extensively in New Orleans to thicken pottage and in making the celebrated 'gumbo' soup."
A cheap and wholesome beer for soldiers, or as a table beer, is prepared from the sassafras. Take eight bottles of water, one quart of molasses, one pint yeast, one tablespoonful ginger and one and a half tablespoon of cream tartar; mix and stir in an open vessel after standing twenty-four hours. As far back as it was suggested in the Patent Office Reports (says a Confederate publication), that the Pyrethrum would be found to answer the purpose of destroying insects, lice, etc., on plants and animals, and up to now, so far as I know, this has not been sufficiently experimented with.
W. Gilmore Simms wrote a friend that the "persimmon beer made in Orangeburg Dist., S. C., by Hon. J. M. Felder, equalled the best sparkling 'Jersey champagne,' or carbonated cider." The old Southern song ran: "Christmas comes but once a year, eggnog and 'simmon beer." It was customary to mash the fruit, strain through a coarse sieve, knead with wheat bran, and bake in an oven. This persimmon bread could be put away for winter use in making beer when wanted.
A correspondent in the Charleston wrote from Waresboro, Ga.: "You speak of black moss for mattresses. Our common palmetto leaves, split into shreds with fork and hackle, boiled, dried in the sun a few days, make a light, clean, healthy and durable mattress. Let me suggest that palmetto pillows would be light and comfortable for our soldiers on the coast. Their corn and flour sacks, in the absence of anything better, furnish ready-made pillow ticks. Our negroes are busily employed making light, durable and handsome palmetto hats for our soldiers. A bed made from the downy swamp plant, which our people call 'cat's tail,' took a premium at a late agricultural fair in South Carolina."
I enumerate a few more medicinal uses that were made of some of the products of our Southern fields and forests by our physicians and housewives, and will close.
Phytolacca decandra, or poke, was largely used in diseases affecting the scalp and in ulcers, eruptions, itch and hemorrhoids. Knot grass was considered a powerful astringent in diarrhoea and uterine hemorrhages. Water pepper, says a writer at Manchester, South Carolina, was used in his family in 1862 in dysentery, and every case was improved and cured. Mountain laurel was employed with claimed success in rheumatism, gout and glandular enlargements. Black alder used as wash in cutaneous troubles. Holly leaves used as an emetic, and birdlime made from the middle bark. Love vine used as a laxative tea. Pinckneya pubens, Georgia bark, useful in intermittent fevers. It is said that "Dr. Fair detected a considerable amount of cinchonine in it, but was prevented from continuing his examination."
Woodbine was given in asthma, and a decoction of the flowers administered to calm the pain of colic following childbirth. A decoction made by pouring boiling water over the leaves, flowers or berries of the elder bush was used as a wash for wounds to prevent injuries from flies. Sea myrtle was used in popular practice in South Carolina as a palliative in consumption and coughs, a strong decoction given several times a day. Ragweed used in whiskey in place of quinine in Maryland. Catweed employed in popular practice in diseases of the chest and bowels. Hound's tongue employed in domestic practice as a mucilaginous drink, and the roots made into a poultice in case of bruises, sprains, etc. Gravel root given as an emetic. Horse nettle used as an aphrodisiac among the negroes. Virginian silk used as a diuretic decoction in gonorrhea. The buds and inside bark of the long-leaved pine and bits of pine steeped in gin were favorite domestic remedies in coughs and colds, and as a diuretic.
What I have here collected has been put together in a busy season and during the war excitements that have just been engaging the attention of all our people. The result is not intended as a complete history of the conditions named. It could, necessarily, only be a part of the history of those conditions.
In designing this paper, I had hoped to make it more complete by using contributions from surgeons of the Confederate army and navy, and druggists engaged in business during the period, so far as they were living, and from papers to be loaned me by them. Out of scores of letters addressed to living men of this character, I received but few replies. In obtaining some of the matter, railway trips had to be taken, and much of it was collected at considerable expense and labor. When it is remembered that the conditions that are suggested here lasted for a period of nearly four years, then the sufferings and the achievements and heroism of seven millions of people are in a measure made manifest.
If I have succeeded in recalling by way of suggestion some facts that in the present may be of use, or in the future may be evolved into utility, I will have been rewarded for my outlay and my efforts.
The war of 1861-1865 is now but a memory. The heroes of both sides--those "tented" on "fame's eternal camping ground" and the survivors--are now dear to a reunited people, who, proud of the common victories of their fellow-countrymen at Manila and Santiago, and rejoicing in the vigor of American arms and the glory of American ideals, stand expectantly waiting and hopefully facing the great future in store.


Medical Fluff Edit

Confederate Army Edit

... COMPRISING THE Official Report of Surgeon Joseph Jones, M. D, LL. D, Surgeon General of the United Confederate Veterans; a Report of the Proceedings of the Reunion of the Survivors of the Medical Corps of the Confederate States Army and Navy, July 2, 1892, at N. B. Forrest Camp, Chattanooga, Tennessee, Address of Surgeon-General Jones, with Statistics of the Armies of Mississippi and Tennessee, 1861-\\'65, and Results of Great Battles, and Official Correspondence of Dr. Jones as to the Forces and Losses of the Southern States, 1861-\\'65, with Reference to the Number and Condition of the Surviving Confederate Soldiers who were Disabled by the Wounds and Diseases Received in Defence of the Rights and Liberties of the Southern States.1 Official Report of Joseph Jones, M. D., of New Orleans, Louisiana, [Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans, Concerning the Medical Department of the Confederate Army and Navy.

156 WASHINGTON AVE., NEW ORLEANS, LA.,

To his Excellency JOHN B. GORDON, GeneralCommanding United Confederate Veterans, Atlanta, Ga.:

GENERAL--I have the honor to submit the following:

The Medical Department of the Confederate States was a branch of the War Department, and was under the immediate supervision of the Secretary of War. The Surgeon-General of the Confederate States was charged with the administrative details of the Medical Department--the government of hospitals, the regulation of the duties of surgeons and assistant-surgeons, and the appointment of acting medical officers when needed for local or detached service. He issued orders and instructions relating to the professional duties of medical officers, and all communications from them which required his action were made directly to him. The great struggle for the independence of the Southern States ended twenty-five years ago, and all soldiers in the Confederate army, from the Commanding General to the private in the ranks, were, by the power of the conquering sword, reduced to one common level, that of The objects of the Association of Confederate Veterans of 1890 are chiefly We conceive, therefore, that the labors of the Surgeon-General relate to two important objects.To accomplish the first object, the following circular, No. 1, has been issued:        1. The Collection and Preservation of the Records of Medical Officers of the Confederate Army and Navy.

CIRCULAR NO. 1.

OFFICE OF SURGEON GENERAL UNITED CONFEDERATE VETERANS)
NEW ORLEANS, LA., A

To the Survivors of the Medical Corps at the Confederate States Army and Navy:

COMRADES--The surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia on this day, twenty five years ago, practically ended the struggle for independence of the Southern States, and during this quarter of a century death has thinned our ranks, and our corps can now oppose but a broken line in the great struggle against human suffering, disease and death. S. P. Moore, Surgeon-General of the Confederate Army, is dead; Charles Bell Gibson, Surgeon-General of Virginia; Surgeons L. Guild, A. J. Ford, J. A. A. Berrian, J. T. Darby, W. A. Carrington, S. A. Ramsey, Samuel Choppin, Robert J. Breckenridge, E. N. Covey, E. S. Gaillard, Paul F. Eve, O. F. Manson, Louis D. Foard, S. E. Habersham, James Bolton, Robert Gibbes, and a host of medical officers of the Confederate States Army are dead. The Association of the United Confederate Veterans was formed in New Orleans June 10, 1889, the objects of which are historical, social and benevolent. Our illustrious commander, General John B. Gordon, of Georgia, has ordered the United Confederate Veterans to assemble in Chattanooga, Tennessee, on July 3, 1890. It is earnestly hoped that every surviving member of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy will meet upon this important occasion, and promote by his presence and his counsels the sacred interests of the United Confederate Veterans. It is of the greatest importance to the future historian, and also to the honor and welfare of the medical profession of the South, that careful records should be furnished to the Surgeon-General of the United Confederate Veterans, embracing the following data:
First. Name, nativity, date of commission in the Confederate States Army and Navy, nature and length of service of every member of the Medical Corps of the Confederate States Army and Navy.
Second. Obituary notice and records of all deceased members of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy.
Third. The titles and copies of all field and hospital reports of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy.
Fourth. Titles and copies of all published and unpublished reports relating to military surgery, and to diseases of armies, camps, hospitals and prisons.
The object proposed to be accomplished by the Surgeon-General of the United Confederate Veterans, is the collection, classification, preservation and the final publication of all the documents and facts bearing upon the history and labors of the Medical Corps of the Confederates States Army and Navy during the civil war, 1861-'65. Everything which relates to critical period of our national history, which shall illustrate the patriotic, self-sacrificing and scientific labors of the Medical Corps of the Confederate States Army and Navy, and which shall vindicate the truth of history, shall be industriously collected, filed and finally published. It is believed that invaluable documents are scattered over the whole land, in the hands of survivors of the civil war of 1861-'65, which will form material for the correct delineation of the medical history of the corps which played so important a part in the great historic drama. Death is daily thinning our ranks, while time is laying its heavy hands upon the heads of those whose hair is already whitening with the advance of years and the burden of cares. No delay, fellow comrades, should be suffered in the collection and preservation of these precious documents. To this task of collecting all documents, cases, statistics and facts relating to the medical history of the Confederate Army and Navy, the Surgeon-General of the United Confederate Veterans invites the immediate attention and co-operation of his honored comrades and compatriots throughout the South.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,[Signed] JOSEPH JONES, M. D.


FORMATION OF THE MEDICAL CORPS OF THE CONFEDERATE ARMY AND NAVY.

The entire army of the Confederate States was made up of volunteers from every walk of life, and the surgical staff of the army was composed of general practitioners from all parts of the Southern country whose previous professional life, during the period of unbroken peace which preceded the civil war, 1861-'65, gave them but little surgery, and very seldom presented a gunshot wound. The study of the hygiene of vast armies hastily collected to repel invasion, poorly equipped and scantily fed, as well as the frightful experience of the wounded upon the battle-field, and the horrible sufferings of the sick and wounded in the hospital, unfolded a vast field for the exercise of the highest skill and loftiest patriotism of the medical men of the South. This body of men, devoted solely to the preservation of the health of the troops in the field, and the preservation of their precious lives, and the surgical care of their mangled bodies and limbs, and the treatment of their diseases in field and general hospital, responded to every call of their bleeding country, and formed upon land and upon sea one indivisible corps, which penetrated all arms of the service, and labored for every soldier, however exalted or however low his rank. When the storm of war suddenly broke upon the Confederacy, and the thunders of cannon were heard around her borders, and her soil trembled with the march of armed battalions; when her ports were blockaded, and medicines and surgical instruments and works were excluded as contraband of war, the medical practitioners of the South gave their lives and fortunes to their country, without any prospect of military or political fame or preferment. They searched the fields and forests for remedies; they improvised their surgical implements from the common instruments of every day life; they marched with the armies, and watched by day and by night in the trenches. The Southern surgeons rescued the wounded on the battle-field, binding up the wounds, and preserving the shattered limbs of their countrymen; the Southern surgeons through four long years opposed their skill and untiring energies to the ravages of war and pestilence. At all times and under all circumstances, in rain and sunshine, in the cold winter and the burning heat of summer, and the roar of battle, the hissing of bullets and the shriek and crash of shells, the brave hearts, cool heads and strong arms of Southern surgeons were employed but for one purpose--the preservation of the health and lives and the limbs of their countrymen. The Southern surgeons were the first to succor the wounded and the sick, and their ears recorded the last words of love and affection for country and kindred, and their hands closed the eyes of the dying Confederate soldiers. When the sword decided the cause against the South, and the men who had for four years borne the Confederacy upon their bayonets surrenderedthe members of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy returned to their desolate homes and resumed the practice of their profession, spoke words of cheer to their distressed countrymen, administered to the sufferings of the sick and wounded Confederate soldiers, and extended their noble and disinterested charities to the widows and orphans of their bereaved and distressed country.        Whilst political soldiers rose to power and wealth upon the shoulders of the sick and disabled soldiers of the Confederate army, by sounding upon all occasions "their war records," the modest veterans of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy were content to serve their sick, wounded and distressed comrades, asking and receiving no other reward than that "peace which passeth all understanding," which flows from the love of humanity, springing from a generous and undefiled heart. It is but just and right that a Roll of Honor should be formed of this band of medical heroes and veterans.

MAGNITUDE OF THE LABORS OF THE MEDICAL CORPS OF THE CONFEDERATE ARMY AND NAVY.

Some conception of the magnitude of the labors performed in field and hospital service, by the officers of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army, may be formed by the consideration of the following general results:

KILLED, WOUNDED AND PRISONERS OF THE CONFEDERATE ARMY.

Year Killed Wounded Prisoners
1861 1,315 4,054 2,772
1862 18,582 68,659 48,300
1863 11,876 51,313 71,211
1864-1865 22,200 70,000 80,000
Total 1861-65 53,973 194,026 202,283
During the period of nineteen months, January, 1862, July, 1863, inclusive, over one million cases of wounds and disease were entered upon the Confederate field reports, and over four hundred thousand cases of wounds upon the hospital reports. The number of cases of wounds and disease treated in the Confederate field and general hospitals were, however, greater during the following twenty-two months, ending April, 1865. It is safe to affirm, therefore, that more than three million cases of wounds and disease were cared for by the officers of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army during the civil war of 1861-1865. The figures, of course, do not indicate that the Confederacy had in the field an army approaching three millions and a half. On the contrary, the Confederate forces engaged during the war of 1861-1865 did not exceed six hundred thousand. Each Confederate soldier was, on an average, disabled for greater or lesser period, by wounds and sickness, about six times during the war.

LOSSES OF THE CONFEDERATE ARMY, 1861-1865.

Confederate forces actively engaged during the war of 1861-1865 600,000
Grand total deaths from battle, wounds and disease 200,000
Losses of Confederate army in prisoners during the war on account of the policy of non-exchange adopted and enforced by the United States 200,000
Losses of the Confederate army from discharges for disability from wounds and disease and desertion during the years 1861-1865 100,000
If this calculation be correct, one-third of all the men actually engaged on the Confederate side were either killed outright on the field or died of disease and wounds; another third of the entire number were captured and held for indefinite periods prisoners of war; and of the remaining two hundred thousand, at least one-half were lost to the service by discharges and desertion.
At the close of the war the available active force in the field, and those fit for duty, numbered scarcely one hundred thousand men.
The great army of Northern Virginia, surrendered by General Robert E. Lee on the 9th of April, 1865, could not muster ten thousand men fit for active warfare. Of this body of six hundred thousand men, fifty-three thousand seven hundred and seventy-three were killed outright, and one hundred and ninety-four thousand and twenty-six wounded on the battle-field. One third of the entire Confederate army was confided to the Confederate surgeons for the treatment of battle wounds; and, in addition to such gigantic services, the greater portion, if not the entire body of the six hundred thousand men, were under the care of the medical department for the treatment of disease.
Well may it be said that to the surgeons of the medical corps is due the credit of maintaining this host of troops in the field. Such records demonstrate, beyond dispute, the grand triumphs and glory of medicine, proving that the physician is the preserver and defender of armies during war.
These records show that the medical profession, however indispensable in the economy of government during peace, become the basis of such economy during war. These statistics show the importance of medicine and its glorious triumphs, and elevate it logically to its true position in the estimation of not only the physician, but in that also of the warrior and statesman. The energy and patriotic bravery of the Confederate soldier are placed in a clear light when we regard, the vast armies of the Federals to which they were opposed.
The whole number of troops mustered into the service of the Northern army, during the war of 1861-1865, was two million seven hundred and eighty-nine thousand eight hundred and ninety-three, or about three times as large as the entire fighting population of the Confederate States. At the time of the surrender of the Confederate armies, and the close of active hostilities, the Federal force numbered one million five hundred and sixteen of all arms, officers and men, and equalled in number the entire fighting population of the Southern Confederacy. Opposed to this immense army of one million of men, supplied with the best equipments and arms, and with the most abundant rations of food, the Confederate government could oppose less than one hundred thousand war-worn and battle-scarred veterans, almost all of whom had, at some time, been wounded, and who had followed the desperate fortunes of the Confederacy for four years with scant supplies of rations, and almost without pay; and yet the spirit of the Confederate soldier remained proud and unbroken to the last charge, as was conclusively shown by the battles of Franklin and Nashville, Tennessee; the operations around Richmond and Petersburg; the last charge of the Army of Northern Virginia; the defense of Fort McAllister on the Ogeechee river in Georgia, where two hundred and fifty Confederate soldiers, in an open earthwork, resisted the assaults of more than five thousand Federal troops, and never surrendered, but were cut down at their guns; at West Point, Georgia, where there was a similar disparity between the garrison and the assaulting corps, where the first and second in command were killed, and the Confederates cut down within the fort; the defense of Mobile in Alabama, and the battle of Bentonville in North Carolina.

NUMBER OF OFFICERS AND ROSTER OF THE MEDICAL CORPS OF THE CONFEDERATE ARMY AND NAVY.

The destruction by fire of the Medical and Surgical Record of the Confederate States, deposited in the Surgeon-General's office in Richmond, Virginia, in April, 1865, has rendered the preparation of a complete Roster of the Medical Corps very difficult, if not impossible.
A general estimate of the aggregate number of medical officers employed in the Medical Department of the Southern Confederacy may be determined by the number of commissioned officers in the Confederate army down to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. Each regiment in the Confederate army was entitled to one colonel, one surgeon, and one or two assistant surgeons, and a medical officer was generally attached to each battalion of infantry, cavalry or artillery. Generals, lieutenant-generals, major-generals and brigadier-generals, frequently, if not always, had attached to their staff medical directors, inspectors or surgeons of corps, divisions and brigades. We gather the following figures from the elaborate and invaluable "Roster of General Officers, etc., in Confederate Service," prepared from official sources by Colonel Charles C. Jones, Jr., of Augusta, Georgia.

CONFEDERATE STATES ARMY.

Generals
Provisional Army:
Generals
Confederate States Army--Regular and Provisional: Lieutenant-Generals
Major-Generals
Brigadier-Generals
Colonels
Total


If it be estimated that for each of these officers, one surgeon and two assistant-surgeons were appointed, and served in field and hospital, then the Confederate Medical Corps was composed of about the following:
Surgeons
Assistant-Surgeons
Total 5,781
This estimate places the number of surgeons and assistant-surgeons at too high a figure, as may be shown by the following considerations:
a. Many regiments and battalions had not more than two medical officers.
b. The casualties of war were much more numerous, and promotion was much more rapid, amongst the line officers than in the Medical Staff.
A more accurate estimate of the actual number of medical officers actively engaged in the Confederate army during the war 1861-'65, may be based upon the number of regiments, battalions and legions of infantry, cavalry and artillery, furnished by the individual States, during the civil war:
Total number of regiments--infantry 536
" " --cavalry 124
" " --artillery 13
Total 673
These regiments were furnished by the individual States, as follows;
State Infantry
Alabama 87 3 ---
Arkansas 34 6 ---
Florida 9 3 ---
Georgia 67 10 ---
Kentucky 11 9 ---
Louisiana 34 1 1
Maryland 1 --- ---
Mississippi 51 5 1
Missouri 15 6 ---
North Carolina 60 5 4
South Carolina 33 7 3
Tennessee 70 12 ---
Texas 22 32 ---
Virginia 64 19 4
Confederate 8 6 ---
Total 124 13



{|cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="233" border="1" |width="192"|Total number of battalions--infantry |width="24"|67 |- |width="192"|" " --cavalry |width="24"| 28 |- |width="192"|" " --artillery |width="24"|50 |- |width="192"|Total |width="24"| 145 |} {|cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="158" border="1" |width="121"|Total legions--infantry |width="20"|13 |- |width="121"|" " --cavalry |width="20"|3 |- |width="121"|" " --artillery |width="20"| --- |- |width="121"|Total |width="20"|16 |} {|cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="281" border="1" |width="237"|Total battalions and legions |width="27"|161 |- |width="237"|Total regiments |width="27"|673 |- |width="237"|Total regiments, battalions and legions comprising the Confederate army during the war 1861-1865 |width="27"| 834 |}If one surgeon and two assistant-surgeons be allowed to each separate command actively engaged in the field during the civil war, 1861-1865, the numbers would be as follows:

Surgeons 834
Assistant-surgeons 1,668
Total 2,502
The medical officers of the Confederate navy numbered:
Surgeons 22
Assistant-surgeons 10
Passed assistant-surgeons 41
Total medical officers C.S.N 73


If to the above be added the surgeons of the general hospitals, recruiting and conscript camps, the entire number of medical officers in the Confederate army during the war 1861-1865 did not amount to three thousand.
The Surgeon-General of the United Confederate Veterans has endeavored to construct an accurate roster from his labors in the field and hospital during the war, and from the official roll of the Confederate armies in the field, and thus far he has been able to record the names and rank of near two thousand Confederate surgeons and assistant-surgeons.
The official list of the paroled officers and men of the Army of Northern Virginia, surrendered by General Robert E. Lee, April 9th, 1865, furnished three hundred and ten surgeons and assistant-surgeons.
The co-operation in this most important work is solicited from every surviving member of the Medical Corps of the Southern Confederacy.
When perfected, this Roster will be published as a roll of honor and deposited in the archives of the United Confederate Veterans. To accomplish this important and benevolent work, the following inquiries have been addressed to the Governors of the Southern States, namely: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia:

CIRCULAR NO. 2.

OFFICE SURGEON-GENERAL, UNITED CONFEDERATE VETERANS,
156 WASHINGTON AVENUE, 4TH DISTRICT,
NEW ORLEANS, LA.,

To His Excellency Governor ----, State of ----:

The attention of your Excellency is respectfully directed to the fact that in the year 1889 the Association of the United Confederate Veterans was formed in New Orleans for historical, social and benevolent purposes. Our illustrious Commanding-General, His Excellency General John B. Gordon, has ordered the assembling of the Confederate Veterans in Chattanooga, Tennessee, 3d of July, 1890. The welfare of the United Confederate Veterans will be materially promoted if your Excellency will furnish the Surgeon-General with the following data:
1. The number of troops furnished to the Confederate States by the State of ----.
2. Number of wounded during the civil war 1861-1865.
3. Number of killed during the civil war 1861-1865.
4. Number of deaths by wounds and disease.
5. Number of Confederate survivors now living in the State of ----.
6. The amount of moneys appropriated by the State of ---- for the relief and support of the survivors
of the Confederate Army from the close of the civil war in 1865 to the present date, 1890.
7. Name, location and capacity of all establishments, hospitals or homes, devoted to the care
of maimed, sick and indigent survivors of the Confederate States Army.
8. A detailed statement of the moneys expended by the State of ---- for the support of the maimed, disabled and indigent survivors of the Confederate Army.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOSEPH JONES, M. D.,Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans.

It was earnestly desired that prompt and full reports on the part of the Chief Executives of the Southern States would have enabled the Surgeon-General to place in the hands of the Commanding General of the United Confederate Veterans, at the first reunion, on the 4th of July, 1890, full statistics of the number of disabled Confederate veterans cared for by the individual States. But replies have been received from only six of the thirteen States of the late Confederacy, and in three of these States it appears that no official assistance has been rendered by the State authorities to the Confederate veterans of 1861-1865.
The Southern States are morally bound to succor and support the men who were disabled by the wounds and diseases received in their service, and the widows and orphans of those who fell in battle. The Confederate soldiers who engaged in the struggle for constitutional liberty and the right of self-government were neither rebels nor traitors; they were true and brave men, who devoted their fortunes and their lives to the mothers who bore them, and their precious blood watered the hills, valleys and plains of their native States, and their bodies sleep in unknown graves, where they shall rest until the last great trumpet shall summon all alike, the conquered and the conqueror.
The survivors have no government with its hundreds of millions for pensions; in the loneliness and suffering of advancing years and increasing infirmities, they can look alone to the States which they served so faithfully in battle, in victory and in defeat.
The noble soldiers who composed the illustrious armies of Northern Virginia and Tennessee made a gallant fight against overwhelming odds for what they believed to be sacred rights and constitutional liberty. The contest was decided by the sword against them.
These matchless soldiers accepted the issue in good faith; they returned to their homes; they resumed the avocations of peace, and engaged in building up the broken fortunes of family and country. These brave soldiers have discharged the It has been well said that no country ever produced braver or more intelligent and chivalric soldiers or more industrious, law-abiding and honorable citizens than were the soldiers who surrendered with the Confederate flag. The earth has never been watered by nobler or richer blood than that shed by those who fell beneath its folds.

I have the honor, General, to remain
Your obedient servant,
JOSEPH JONES, M. D.,Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans.

- - - - -

II. Brief Report of the First Reunion of the Survivors of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy, July 2, 1890, in N. B. Forrest Camp, Chattanooga, Tennessee--Address of Surgeon-General Joseph Jones, M. D., United Confederate Veterans, Containing War Statistics of the Confederate Armies of Mississippi and Tennessee; also Casualties of Battles of Belmont, Donelson, Shiloh, Perryville, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga; Engagements from Dalton to Atlanta; Battles Around Atlanta, Jonesboro, Franklin and Nashville.
The meeting of the Confederate surgeons, assembled by invitation in N. B. Forrest Camp, was called to order by Surgeon G. W. Drake of Chattanooga, Medical Director of the reunion of the United Confederate Veterans, who explained its objects and extended a hearty welcome in a brief but eloquent address. Surgeon Drake introduced Joseph Jones, M. D., of New Orleans, Surgeon-General of the United Confederate Veterans, who spoke as follows:

"Comrades,survivors of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy, we meet for the since the close of the war between the Northern and Southern States in this Camp, which bears the name of N. B. Forrest, one of the greatest cavalry leaders of the American war of 1861-1865. In the midst of this peaceful and beautiful city, we are surrounded by the mementoes and emblems of war. Dr. J. B. Cowan, Chief Surgeon, and Dr. John B. Morton, Chief of Artillery of General N. B. Forrest's cavalry, and Dr. A. E. Flewellen, Medical Director of the Army of Tennessee under General Braxton Bragg, and many other distinguished representatives of the Confederate Army and Navy, are with us; and we are glad to welcome once more the noble forms and brave countenances of the Confederate veterans. As the speaker stood this day upon the summit of Lookout Mountain, at an elevation of two thousand six hundred and seventy-eight feet, the mountains and valleys of Tennessee and Georgia presented a panorama of wonderful beauty and unsurpassed historical interest. At the foot of the mountain, which stands silent and alone, like the Egyptian Sphinx, winds the beautiful Tennessee, embracing the growing and active city of Chattanooga, like a crown of jewels, spreading around and over Cameron's Hill, once crowned with stern battlements and frowning cannon. Here at our feet lies Moccasin Bend, as beautiful as a garden with its fields of waiving grain. Up this steep mountain side charged the Northern hosts, and here was fought "The Battle Above the Clouds." The eye ranges over Waldron's Ridge and Missionary Ridge, rendered historic by bloody and desperate battles. Twenty-seven years ago the soldiers of General Bragg, ranged along the crest of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, held the Northern army closely invested within the military and fortified camp of Chattanooga, and sustaining upon their bayonets the fortunes of the Southern Confederacy in the West, they resisted the southward flow of the red tide of war, and for a time protected the mountains, hills and valleys of Georgia from the devastating march of Northern hostile armies.

BATTLE OF CHICKAMAUGA, GEORGIA.

To the south winds the river of Death along whose densely wooded bank, on the 19th and 20th of September, 1863, lay thirty thousand dead, dying and wounded Confederate and Federal soldiers.
The battle of Chickamauga, Georgia, is justly regarded as one of the most bloody conflicts of the war.
General Bragg's effective force on the first day of the battle, September 19, 1863, exclusive of cavalry, was a little over thirty-five thousand men, which was in the afternoon reinforced by five brigades of Longstreet's corps numbering about five thousand effective infantry, without artillery. The Confederate loss was in proportion to the prolonged and obstinate struggle, and two-fifths of these gallant troops were killed and wounded. Dr. A. E. Flewellen, the Medical Director of the Army of Tennessee, who is with us at this reunion, active and energetic in body and mind, at the age of seventy years, gave the following estimate of the Confederate losses in this bloody battle of Chickamauga:

BATTLE OF CHICKAMAUGA--CONFEDERATE LOSSES.

Corps Killed Wounded Total
Polk 440 2,891 3,331
Hill 311 2,354 2,665
Buckner 436 2,844 3,280
Walker 367 2,045 2,412
Longstreet 260 1,656 1,916
Forrest 10 40 50
Grand total 1,824 11,830 13,654
The full and revised returns of all the Confederate forces engaged in this bloody battle show that the estimate of the Medical Director of the casualties was below and not above the actual loss.
The aggregate casualties of the 19th and 20th of September, 1863, were officially reported by General Braxton Bragg, as two thousand and twelve killed, twelve thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine wounded, and two thousand and eighty-four missing; total, seventeen thousand and ninety five.
From the original reports in the possession of General Braxton Bragg, we consolidated the following:
On the 19th of September, Lieutenant-General Polk's corps numbered thirteen thousand three hundred and thirteen effective officers and men, artillery and infantry; on the 20th, eleven thousand and seventy-five. During the two days' battle, Polk's corps lost, killed four hundred and forty-two, wounded three thousand one hundred and forty-one, missing five hundred and thirty-one; total four thousand one hundred and fourteen.
On the 19th of September, Lieutenant-General Longstreet's corps numbered two thousand one hundred and eighty-nine; on the 20th, seven thousand six hundred and thirty-five; loss, killed four hundred and seventy-one, wounded two thousand eight hundred and eighty-seven, missing three hundred and eleven; total three thousand six hundred and sixty-nine.
Lieutenant General D. H. Hill's corps numbered, September 19th, seven thousand one hundred and thirty-seven; on the 20th, eight thousand eight hundred and twelve; loss, killed three hundred and eighty, wounded two thousand four hundred and fifty-six, missing one hundred and sixty, eight; total three thousand and four.
Major-General S. B. Buckner's corps numbered, September 19th, nine thousand and eighty; on the 20th, six thousand nine hundred and sixty-one; loss, killed three hundred and seventy-eight, wounded two thousand five hundred and sixty-six, missing three hundred and forty-one; total three thousand two hundred and eighty-five.
Major-General W. H. F. Walker's corps, September 19th, seven thousand five hundred and thirty-seven; 20th, five thousand nine hundred and seventy-four; loss, killed three hundred and forty-one, wounded one thousand nine hundred and forty-nine, missing seven hundred and thirty-three; total three thousand and twenty-three.
On the 19th of September the number of Confederate officers and men engaged were:
Infantry officers 3,343
Infantry enlisted men 34,096
Total infantry 37,439
Artillery officers 76
Artillery enlisted men 1,791
Total artillery 1,867
Total infantry and artillery 39,306
On the 20th of September the number of Confederate officers and men engaged were:
Infantry officers 3,648
Enlisted men 35,124
Total infantry 38,772
Artillery officers 68
Enlisted men 1,617
Total artillery 1,685
Total infantry and artillery 40,457
Total officers and men killed, wounded and missing, artillery and infantry, September 19 and 20, 1863: killed, two thousand and twelve; wounded, twelve thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine; missing, two thousand and eighty-four; total, seventeen thousand and ninety-five.

RIGHT WING, COMMANDED BY LIEU'T GENERAL LEONIDAS POLK.

Killed Wounded Missing Total
Polk's corps 442 3,141 531 4,114
Hill's corps 380 2,456 168 3,004
Walker's corps 341 1,949 733 3,023
1,163 7,546 1,432 10,141
LEFT WING, LIEUTENANT--GENERAL JAMES LONGSTREET.
Killed Wounded Missing Total
Longstreet's corps 471 2,887 311 3,669
Buckner 378 2,566 341 3,285
849 5,453 652 6,954
Grand total right and left wing: killed, two thousand and twelve; wounded, twelve thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine; missing, two thousand and eighty-four: total, seventeen thousand and ninety-five.
Nearly one-half of the army consisted of reinforcements, just before the battle without a wagon or an artillery horse, and nearly if not quite one-third of the artillery horses were lost on the field; the medical officers had means greatly inadequate, especially in transportation, for the great number of wounded suddenly thrown upon their hands, in a wild and sparsely settled country; many of the wounded were exhausted by two days' battle, with limited supply of water, and almost destitute of provisions. The fruits of this glorious victory, purchased by an immense expenditure of the precious blood of the Southern soldiers, were lost to the Southern Confederacy through the indecision and indiscretion of the Confederate commander.

CASUALTIES OF THE ARMY OF TENNESSEE, NOVEMBER, 1863.

The casualties of the Army of Tennessee during the subsequent disasters of Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain and Knoxville, Tennessee, are comparatively small in comparison to the magnitude of the operations.
The losses of the Confederate forces were:
Knoxville, November 18 to 29--Killed, two hundred and sixty; wounded, eight hundred and eighty; total, one thousand one hundred and forty.
Lookout Mountain, November 23 and 24--Killed, forty-three: wounded, one hundred and thirty-five; total, one hundred and seventy-eight.
Missionary Ridge, November 25, 1863--Killed, three hundred and eighty-three; wounded, one thousand eight hundred and eighty-two; total, two thousand two hundred and sixty-five.
Tunnel Hill, November 27--Killed, thirty; wounded, one hundred and twenty-nine; total, one hundred and fifty-nine.
Aggregate of these engagements--Killed, seven hundred and sixteen: wounded, three hundred and two; total, three thousand seven hundred and forty-two. We have, then, as a grand aggregate of the Confederate losses in battle in the operations around Chattanooga, Tennessee:
Killed Wounded Missing
Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia, September 19 and 20 2,012 12,999 2,087
Knoxville, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Tunnel Hill, Nov 18, 29 716 3,026
Total 2,728 16,025 2,087
Aggregate loss 20,840
This estimate does not include the losses in prisoners sustained by General Bragg's army at Knoxville, at Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, which would swell the total loss to over thirty-thousand men.
The desperate and bloody nature of the Confederate operations around Chattanooga, in the months of September and November, 1863, will be seen by a brief view of the preceding great battles fought by the armies of Mississippi and Tennessee, and of the subsequent campaigns under General Joseph E. Johnston and General J. B. Hood, in 1864 and 1865.
At the battle of Belmont, Missouri, on the 7th November, 1861, the Confederate forces, under the command of General Leonidas Polk, defeated the Federal forces under General U. S. Grant, with a loss to the former of killed, one hundred and five; wounded, four hundred and nineteen; missing, one hundred and seventeen; total, six hundred and forty-one.
The Confederate operations of 1861 and 1865, as conducted by General Albert Sidney Johnston, at the battle of Shiloh, were characterized by the most appalling disasters.
Fort Henry, Tennessee, fell February 6, 1862, with an insignificant loss of five killed, eleven wounded, sixty-three prisoners.
Fort Donelson, Tennessee, after three days' fighting, February 14, 15 and 16, 1862, surrendered, with a loss of killed, two hundred and thirty-one; wounded, one thousand and seven; prisoners, thirteen thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine; total Confederate loss, fifteen thousand and sixty-seven. With the fall of Forts Henry and Donelson, the Cumberland and Tennessee were opened to the passage of the iron-clad gunboats of the Northern army; Kentucky passed under the Federal yoke; Nashville, the proud political and literary emporium of Tennessee, was lost, and this noble State became the common battle-ground of hostile and contending armies.
Both sides levied recruits and supplies from the unfortunate citizens of Tennessee; Columbus, Kentucky, was abandoned, and the fall of Island No. 10, Fort Pillow and Memphis followed.
The unbroken tide of Federal victory in the West was rudely arrested by the armies gathered by General Albert Sidney Johnston and General G. T. Beauregard near the southern shore of the Tennessee, at Corinth, Mississippi.
The brave Confederate commander, General Albert Sidney Johnston sealed his devotion to the Southern Confederacy with his life, on the 6th of April, 1862, whilst leading to victory the gallant soldiers of the Armies of Mississippi and Tennessee.
At the battle of Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862, the effective total of the Confederate forces, comprising the Army of Mississippi, before the battle, numbered, forty thousand three hundred and fifty-five, and after the bloody repulse of the 7th, the effective total was only twenty-nine thousand six hundred and thirty-six. General Beauregard, in his official report, places his loss at Shiloh at one thousand seven hundred and twenty-eight killed outright, eight thousand nine hundred and twelve wounded, nine hundred and fifty-nine missing, making an aggregate of casualties of ten thousand six hundred and ninety-nine. The losses at Shiloh were distributed among the different corps of the Confederate army as follows:
Killed Wounded Missing
First Corps, Major-General Polk 385 1,953 19
Second Corps, Major-General Bragg 553 2,441 634
Third Corps, Major-General Hardee 404 1,936 141
Reserve, Major-General Breckenridge 386 1,682 165
Total 1,728 8,012
The suffering of the Confederate wounded were great, indeed, as they lay upon the cold ground of Shiloh during the night of the 6th, exposed to the pitiless rain and the murderous fire of the gunboats. In the subsequent siege of Corinth, less than fifty thousand Confederate troops successfully resisted the advance of one hundred and twenty-five thousand Federal troops abundantly supplied with food and water, and armed and equipped with most approved weapons of modern warfare. The losses of the Confederate forces from disease during the siege of Corinth equalled, if they did not exceed, the casualties of the battle of Shiloh.
General Beauregard, by his masterly evacuation of Corinth, eluded his powerful antagonist. The Armies of Mississippi and Tennessee, under the leadership of General Bragg, inaugurated the campaign of 1862 for the recovery of Tennessee and Kentucky.
At the battle of Perryville, Kentucky, October 8, 1862, the Army of Mississippi, under the command of General Leonidas Polk, lost, killed, five hundred and ten; wounded, two thousand six hundred and thirty-five; missing, two hundred and fifty-one; total, three thousand three hundred and ninety-six.
In the Kentucky campaign of 1862, the Confederate troops under the command of Generals Braxton Bragg and E. Kirby Smith manifested their powers of endurance on long and fatiguing marches, and their excellent discipline in retreating in good order in the face of overwhelming hostile forces.
At the battle of Murfreesboro, December 31, 1862, and January 1, 1863, the Confederate army lost nearly one-third of its number in killed and wounded.
General Bragg, in his official report of this battle, estimates the number of his fighting men in the field on the morning of the 31st of December at less than thirty-five thousand, of which about thirty thousand were infantry and artillery. During the two days' fighting General Bragg's army lost one thousand six hundred killed and eight thousand wounded; total, nine thousand six hundred killed and wounded.
From the 6th of April, 1862, to the close of the year 1863, the Army of Mississippi and Tennessee lost in the battles of Shiloh, Murfreesboro and Chickamauga six thousand and forty-six killed on the field, and thirty-two thousand and thirty-five wounded; total killed and wounded, thirty-eight thousand and eighty-one.
We do not include in this estimate the loss sustained at Perryville, in Bragg's Kentucky campaign, or in numberless skirmishes and cavalry engagements. More than fifty thousand wounded men were cared for by the medical officers of the Army of Tennessee during a period of less than twenty-one months.
The deaths from disease exceeded those from gun-shot wounds, and the sick from the camp diseases of armies greatly exceeded the wounded, in the proportion of about five to one; and during the period specified, embracing the battles of Shiloh and Chickamauga, the sick and wounded of the Armies of Tennessee and Mississippi numbered more than two hundred thousand.
Surely from this mass of suffering humanity, valuable records and practical precepts in the practice of medicine and military surgery must have been evolved. It was and is the solemn duty of every member of the Medical Corps of the Army of Tennessee to place the results of his experience in a tangible form, accessible to his comrades; and no officer, however important his position during the Confederate struggle, has the right to withhold for his personal benefit the Hospital and Medical Records of the Army of Tennessee. These views are applicable to the medical and surgical statistics of the several armies of the rate Confederacy east and west of the Mississippi.
The Armies of Tennessee and Mississippi, under the command of General Joseph E. Johnston, sustained a loss of killed, one thousand two hundred and twenty-one, wounded, eight thousand two hundred and twenty-nine; total, nine thousand four hundred and fifty--in the series of engagements around and from Dalton, Georgia, to the Etowah river, May 7th to May 30th, 1864; series of engagements around New Hope Church, near Marietta, June 1, July 4, 1864.
The Army of Tennessee (the Army of Mississippi being merged into it), under the command of General J. B. Hood, during the series of engagements around Atlanta and Jonesboro July 4 to September 1, 1864, loss, killed, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-three, wounded, ten thousand seven hundred and twenty-three; total, twelve thousand five hundred and forty-six.
During a period of four months the Armies of Tennessee and Mississippi fought no less than six important battles, and sustained a loss of killed, three thousand and forty-four, wounded eighteen thousand nine hundred and fifty-two. Total killed and wounded, twenty-one thousand nine hundred and ninety-six.
During the month of October, 1864, the Army of Tennessee lost killed, one hundred and eighteen; wounded, six hundred and twenty-two; total, seven hundred and forty. During the month of November: Killed, one thousand and eighty-nine; wounded, three thousand one hundred and thirty-one; total, four thousand two hundred and twenty. These casualties include the bloody battle of Franklin, Tennessee, fought November 30, 1864. As shown by Colonel Mason's official report, made on the l0th of December, ten days after the battle of Franklin, the effective strength of the Army of Tennessee was: Infantry, eighteen thousand three hundred and forty-two; artillery, two thousand tour hundred and five; cavalry, two thousand three hundred and six; total, twenty-three thousand and fifty-three. This last number, subtracted from thirty thousand six hundred, the strength of General Hood's army at Florence, shows a total loss, from all causes, of seven thousand five hundred and forty-seven from the 6th of November to the l0th of December, which period embraces the engagements at Columbia, Franklin, and of Forrest's cavalry.
At the battle of Nashville, the Army of Tennessee lost in killed and wounded about two thousand five hundred, making the total loss during the Tennessee campaign about ten thousand.
According to Colonel Mason's statement, there were, including the furloughed men, about eighteen thousand five hundred men, effectives, of the infantry and artillery at Tupelo after General Hood's retreat from Nashville. Before the advance of the army into Tennessee on the 6th of November, 1864, the effective strength was thirty thousand six hundred, inclusive of the cavalry.
Thus we find at Tupelo, eighteen thousand five hundred infantry and artillery, and two thousand three hundred and six Forrest's cavalry, to which add ten thousand lost from all causes, and the total sum amounts to thirty thousand eight hundred and six effectives. General Hood thus estimates his loss in the Tennessee campaign to have been in excess of ten thousand.
Of the once proud Army of Tennessee, less than twenty thousand foot-sore, shoeless, ragged soldiers escaped with Hood's advance into Tennessee; at the same time a large army (in numbers at least) of sick, wounded and convalescents crowded the general hospitals in Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi.
The life of the Confederacy was bound up in its armies, and when these armies were scattered in the field and their means of sustenance and transportation destroyed, all hope of final success perished. With the Southern Confederacy, the problem was one of endurance and resources; and no Confederate general appears to have comprehended this truth more thoroughly than Joseph E. Johnston. In his masterly retreat from Dalton to Atlanta, he opposed successfully less than fifty thousand Confederate troops against General Sherman's powerful, thoroughly armed and equipped army of more than one hundred thousand brave, stalwart Western soldiers. In his slow retreat, General Johnston was ever ready to give battle, and whilst inflicting greater losses upon his great adversary than his own forces sustained, he, nevertheless, during this incessant fighting maintained the morale, discipline, valor and thorough organization and armament of his soldiers.
The chief executive of the Southern Confederacy, with all his lofty patriotism and burning ardor for the defence of his bleeding country, placed too high an estimate upon his own individual military genius, and failed to grasp in all its bearings the problem of the terrible death struggle of the young nation.
General Hood combined with unbounded energy and dauntless courage and glowing patriotism a fiery ambition for military glory which led him to overestimate his own military genius and resources and at the same time to underestimate the vast resources and military strategy of his antagonist.
When General Hood ceased to confront General Sherman, and opened the way for his desolating march through the rich plantations of Georgia, the Empire State of the South, the fate of the Confederacy was forever sealed. The beleagured Confederacy, torn and bleeding along all her borders, was in no position to hurl her war-worn, imperfectly clad and poorly armed and provisioned battalions upon fortified cities.
The effort to destroy forces aggregating in Georgia and Tennessee near two hundred thousand effectives by a force of less than forty thousand men, which had cut loose from its base of supplies, exceeded the wildest dream of untamed military enthusiasm.
Of the gallant soldiers whose blood reddened the waters of the Tennessee and enriched the hills and valleys of Georgia, Tennessee furnished seventy regiments of infantry and twelve regiments of cavalry.
If the soldiers furnished by Tennessee to the Federal army be added, it is only just to say that she alone furnished more than one hundred thousand men to the American war of 1861-'65, and won afresh the title of the Noble Tennessee! The generous and prolific mother of brave soldiers and of beautiful and intrepid women.
What changes have been wrought in a quarter of a century! The songs of birds, the sturdy blows of the woodman's axe have supplanted the roar of cannon and the rattle of musketry; the soil which drank up the blood of Southern soldiers bears its precious burden of golden corn and snowy white fleecy cotton; the laughter of women and prattle of children, and the merry whistle of the plowman fill the places of the brazen trumpet and the martial music of the fife and drum, and the hoarse shouts of contending men, and groans of the wounded and dying; the entrenched camp and ragged village of 1865 has given place to the thriving city of fifty thousand inhabitants, with its workshops, factories, well filled stores, electric lights and railways, and its universities of science and literature.
Here in this historic place the weary invalids of the Northern clime may rest in the shadows and bathe their fevered brows in the cool breezes of these grand mountains.
In this brief record of the heroic efforts of the soldiers of the Armies of Mississippi and Tennessee to defend the Southern States from the Northern invaders, we have time but to make a brief allusion to the defence of the Mississippi river by the Confederate Government, which was characterized by a long chain of disasters.
The fall of Forts Henry and Donelson opened the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers to the ironclads of the Federals and convoyed and protected their armies as they marched into the heart of the Confederacy. The strong fortifications erected by General Leonidas Polk, at Columbus, Kentucky, were evacuated by the orders of the commanding Generals, Albert Sidney Johnston and G. T. Beauregard.
Island No. 10 fell with a loss of seventeen killed and five hundred prisoners, on the 8th of April, 1862, and the navigation of the Mississippi river was secured by the Federal fleet up to the walls of Fort Pillow, above Memphis, Tennessee.
New Orleans, the commercial emporium of the Confederacy, fell after an inglorious defence (April 18, April 28, 1862), characterized by indecision, incompetence and insubordination, with the trifling loss of one hundred and eighty-five killed, one hundred and ninety-seven wounded, four hundred prisoners; total Confederate loss, seven hundred and eighty-two.
Wise statesmanship dictated that the entire power and resources of the Southern Confederacy should have been concentrated upon the defence of the mouth of the Mississippi river. The future historian of this war will find in the fall of Forts Henry, Donelson, and of New Orleans the first and greatest disasters of the Southern cause from which unnumbered and fatal disasters flowed, and which ended in the final destruction of the Confederacy.
The evacuation of Fort Pillow was followed by the surrender at Memphis, Tennessee, June 6, 1862, after a loss of eighty-one killed and wounded, and one hundred missing, incurred in the resistance offered by the Confederate flotilla, consisting of the gunboats Van Dorn, Price, Jeff Thompson, Bragg, Lovell, Beauregard, Sumpter and Little Rebel.
The defence of Vicksburg includes: The battle of Baton Rouge, August 5, 1862, General J. Breckenridge: killed, eighty-four; wounded, three hundred and sixteen; missing, seventy-eight; total Confederate loss, four hundred and sixty-eight. Iuka, Mississippi, September 19 and 20, General Sterling Price: killed, two hundred and sixty-three; wounded, six hundred and ninety-two; missing, five hundred and sixty, one; total, one thousand five hundred and sixteen. Corinth, Mississippi, October 3 and 4, 1862, Generals Van Dorn and Sterling Price: killed, five hundred and ninety-four; wounded, two thousand one hundred and sixty-two; missing, two thousand one hundred and two; total, four thousand eight hundred and six. Port Gibson, May 1, 1863, Major-General John S. Bowen: killed and wounded, one thousand one hundred and fifty; missing, five hundred; total, one thousand six hundred and fifty. Baker's Creek, May 16, 1863, Lieutenant-General Pemberton: killed and wounded, two thousand; missing, one thousand eight hundred; total, three thousand eight hundred. Big Black River, May 17, 1863, Lieutenant-General Pemberton: killed and wounded, six hundred; missing, two thousand five hundred; total, three thousand one hundred and ten. Vicksburg, Mississippi, May 18 to July 4, 1863: Lieutenant-General J. C. Pemberton: killed, wounded, missing and prisoners, thirty-one thousand two hundred and seventy-seven. Port Hudson, Louisiana, May 27 to July 9, 1863; killed and wounded, seven hundred and eighty: missing and prisoners, six thousand four hundred and eight; total, seven thousand one hundred and eighty-eight. Jackson, Mississippi, July 9 to 26, General Joseph E. Johnston: killed, seventy one; wounded, five hundred and four; missing, twenty-five; total, six hundred.
During the operations in Mississippi and Louisiana on the east bank of the Mississippi river for the defence of Vicksburg, commencing with the battle of Baton Rouge, August 5, 1862, and ending with the evacuation of Jackson, Mississippi, July 19, 1863. the Confederate army lost in killed, wounded and prisoners, fifty-four thousand four hundred and fifteen officers and men--an army equal in numbers to the largest ever assembled upon any battle-field of the war under any one Confederate commander. If we add to this the losses occurring in the field and general hospitals, from sickness, discharges, deaths and desertions, the loss sustained by the Confederate forces in these operations would equal an army of at least seventy-five thousand.
The heart of the Southern patriot stands still at the recital of these humiliating details. The Confederate commander, General J. C. Pemberton, was not merely outnumbered, but he was outgeneraled by his Northern antagonists.
What medical and surgical records have been preserved of this mass of suffering, disease and death? Who has written the medical history of the sufferings of the brave defenders of Vicksburg?
Fellow soldiers and comrades of the Confederate Army and Navy, I accepted the honor conferred upon me by one of the most illustrious captains of the struggle for Southern independence, not because it conferred power or pecuniary emoluments, but solely that I might in some manner further the chosen project of my life. When my native State, Georgia, seceded from the Federal union in January, 1861, I placed my sword and my life at her service. Entering as a private of cavalry, I served in defense of the sea coast in 1861, and although acting as surgeon to this branch of the service, I performed all the duties required of the soldier in the field. Entering the medical service of the Confederate army in 1862, I served as surgeon up to the date of my surrender in May, 1865. Through the confidence and kindness of Surgeon-General S. P. Moore, Confederate States Army, I was enabled to inspect the great armies, camps, hospitals, beleagured cities and military prisons of the Southern Confederacy.
The desire of my soul, and the ambition of my entire life, was to preserve, as far as possible, the medical and surgical records of the Confederate army during this gigantic struggle.
The defeat of our armies and the destruction of our government only served to increase my interest and still further to enrage all my energies in this great work, which, under innumerable difficulties, I have steadily prosecuted in Augusta. Georgia, Nashville, Tennessee, and New Orleans, Louisiana, up to this happy moment when I greet the stern but noble laces of the survivors of the Confederate Army and Navy.
I hold this position, which has neither military fame nor financial resources, solely for the right which it gives me to issue a last appeal for the preservation of the Medical and Surgical Records of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy.
A veteran of more than four years' active service in the cause of the Southern Confederacy, at the end of a quarter of a century issues his last call of honor and glory to his comrades, which will be found at length in his report to the general commanding, which is now presented for the consideration of the survivors of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy. (See preceding report.) With the researches and records of the speaker taken during the war and subsequently, he has in his possession ample material for a volume relating to the Medical and Surgical History of the Confederate Army of not less than one thousand five hundred pages, and it is to be hoped that the survivors will furnish such data as will enable him to give accurate statements with reference to the labors, names and rank of the medical officers.

INSIGNIA OF THE MEDICAL CORPS OF THE CONFEDERATE ARMY AND NAVY.

In conclusion, comrades, the speaker would urge the adoption of some badge or device which should serve to distinguish the survivors of the Medical Corps of the Southern Confederacy.
The objects of this reunion and of this association are historical, benevolent and social, and the medal or seal which marks its realization should embody within a brief circle these sacred and noble sentiments.
The outer circle bearing the words "Medical Corps Confederate States of America, Army and Navy, 1861-1865," expresses the great historical fact, that within the circle of these four years a nation was born and exhibited to the world its existence, power and valor, in its well organized and efficient army and navy. Within the brief space of time, 1861-1865, was enacted one of the greatest and bloodiest revolutions of the ages, and a peculiar form of civilization passed forever away.
Upon the silver field and embraced by the outer circle rests a golden cross with thirteen stars--the Southern cross--the cross of the battle flag of the Southern Confederacy.
The reverse of the medal bears at the apex of the circle the letters U. C. V., and at the line under, the date 1890. The laurel leaf of the outer circle surrounds the venerated and golden head of the great Southern captain, General Robert E. Lee, who was the type of all that was heroic, noble and benevolent in the Confederate Army and Navy. Grand in battle and victory, General Lee was equally grand and noble in defeat; and his farewell address to his soldiers has been the most powerful utterance for the pacification of the warlike elements of his country and the rehabilitation of the waste places of the South by the peaceful arts of agriculture, manufacturers and commerce.
Whilst the Southern armies were wreathed in victory, the thunderbolts of war, which made wide gaps through their ranks, inflicted irreparable damage. When the brave soldiers of the South sank to rest upon the bosom of their mother earth, they rose no more; the magnificent hosts which watered the plains, valleys and mountains with their precious blood were the typical and noble representatives of their race.
Whilst the North increased in resources and men, as the war went on, the Southern Confederacy was penetrated and rent along all her borders; her fertile plains were overrun and desolated, her gallant sons fell before the iron tempest of war, and her final overthrow and subjugation followed as the night does the day. Comrades, survivors of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy. is it not our solemn duty to commemorate the deeds of our comrades who yielded up their lives in the struggle for Southern independence, on the battle-field, in the hospital and in the military prison? Shall we not adopt a simple but imperishable medal which may be handed down to our children?" An organization of a" Medical" Relief Corps was proposed by Dr. Jones, as accidents were likely to occur amongst the large army of Confederate veterans assembled from the surrounding States in Chattanooga, which would require the prompt aid of the medical profession.
The following physicians were appointed and requested to go on duty and act as a Medical Relief Corps, at the places designated, during the 3d, 4th and 5th of July, beginning at 8 A. M. each day. They will be relieved hourly, and take their turns in the order named:
At L. J. Sharp & Co.'s: Drs. E. A. Cobleigh, J. L. Gaston, G. M. Ellis, J. F. Sheppard, W. P. Creig, E. E. Kerr, W. B. Lee, Frederick B. Stapp, I. S. Dunham, D. E. Nelson, C. S. Wright, R. F. Wallace.
Snodgrass Hill: W. T. Hope, J. L. Atlee, Vaulx Gibbs, C. F. McGahan, W. B. Wells, A. M. Boyd, J. J. McConnell, W. C. Townes, Cooper Holtzclaw, A. P. Van Deever, T. C. V. Barkley.
Court-House: L. Y. Green, J. E. Reeves, G. A. A. Baxter, H. L. McReynolds. H. B. Wilson, F. M. Leverson, B. S. Wert, W. B. Bogart, E. B. Wise, H. Berlin, Y.J. Abernathy, J. R. Rathwell. Joseph Jones, Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans.
G. W. Drake, Medical Director.
P. D. Sims, Chief of Staff.
L. H. Wilson, Register.
All visiting physicians and surgeons of the Confederate States Army and Confederate States Navy, are requested to register at L. H. Wilson's drug store, 829 Market street.
After the committee was appointed, Dr. Jones, read his report to General John B. Gordon, Commander United Confederate Veterans.
Dr. J. E. Reeves delivered a short address, in which he complimented Dr. Jones very highly on the manner and thoroughness of his report, and in conclusion offered a motion to appoint a committee to draft suitable resolutions in regard to Dr. Jones' report. The following gentlemen composed the committee: Drs. Drake, Holtzclaw, Hope, Rees and Howard.
A recess of a few minutes allowed the committee time to retire and draft resolutions. The following are the resolutions, which were unanimously adopted:
WHEREAS, We have been honored by the presence of Dr. Joseph Jones, Surgeon-General of the United Confederate Veterans; and
WHEREAS, We have heard his able report to the illustrious General John B. Gordon, Commanding-General of the United Confederate Veterans, whose presence will also grace this reunion occasion; therefore,That we, surviving members of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy, and the medical profession, tender to Dr. Jones our gratitude for his very able presentation of the objects to be gained by the assembling of the survivors of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy.That he has placed the whole medical profession of the United States under obligations for his self-sacrificing labor in raising from oblivion the priceless statistics relating to the medical history of the Confederate Army and Navy.That we bespeak the earnest co-operation of the surviving surgeons of the Confederate Army and Navy, in his efforts to procure the imperishable roster his unselfish labors have so auspiciously begun.That a copy of these resolutions be furnished the press for publication.
The following insignia, prepared and presented in silver and gold by Surgeon-General Joseph Jones, will be adopted and worn by the surviving members of the Medical Corps of United Confederate Veterans: Silver disk, one inch in diameter, containing a gold cross, on which are thirteen stars; on face inside edge, "Medical Corps, C. S. A. and C. S. N., 1861-'65." On reverse--" United Confederate Veterans, 1890." Name and rank of officer on both faces. After a short discussion, the meeting adjourned. The following chairman of committees will look after the visiting physicians from the States which they represent:

Alabama--B. S. West, 714 Market street.
Arkansas--G. A. Baxter, 115 east Eighth street.
Florida--F. T. Smith, 10 west Ninth street.
Kentucky--L. Y. Green, Lookout Mountain.
Louisiana--W. L. Gahagan, 10 west Ninth street.
Maryland--E. A. Cobleigh, 729 Chestnut street.
Mississippi--N. C. Steele, 722 east Seventh street.
Missouri--H. L. McReynolds, 638 Market street.
North Carolina--T. G. Magee, 518 Georgia avenue.
South Carolina--C. F. McGahan, Richardson block.
Tennessee-- P. D. Sims, 713 Georgia avenue.
Texas--E. B. Wise, 713 Georgia avenue.
Virginia--G. W. Drake, 320 Walnut street.
West Virginia--J. E. Reeves, 20 McCallie avenue
New England States--E. M. Eaton, 20 east Eight street.
Middle States--F. M. Severson, 826 Market street.
Western States--J. J. Durand, 208 Pine street.
Northwestern States--E. F. Kerr, 709 Market street.
Canada--G. M. Ellis, 826 Market street.Foreign Countries--H. Berlin, 600 Market street.

W. DRAKE, M. D., Medical Director.

The Medical Faculty of Chattanooga, under the able leadership of the Medical Director, Dr. G. W. Drake, were untiring in their kind attentions and general hospitality to the survivors of the Medical Corps of the United Confederate Veterans.

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III. Official Correspondence, 1890-'92, of Joseph Jones, M. D, Surgeon-General U. C. V., with reference to the Forces and Losses of the individual Southern States during the War 1861-'65; and with reference to the Number and Condition of the surviving Co federate Soldiers who were disabled by the wounds and diseases received in the defence of the Rights and Liberties of the Southern States.

OFFICE OF SURGEON-GENERAL UNITED CONFEDERATE VETERANS,
156 WASHINGTON AVENUE,
NEW ORLEANS, LA.,

JOHN B. GORDON, General commanding United Confederate Veterans:

GENERAL--I have the honor herewith to submit the results of an extended correspondence with the Executives of the Southern States which were formerly united under the Confederate Government.
This correspondence presents many facts of interest to the United Confederate Veterans.
Immediately after the acceptance of the honorary position of the author instituted extended inquiries with the design of determining:
1. The number of troops furnished by the Southern States during the Civil War, 1861-1865.
2. The number of killed and wounded, and the deaths caused by disease.
3. An accurate statement of the moneys appropriated by the individual States for the relief of disabled and indigent Confederate soldiers from the close of the war in 1865 to the time of this correspondence in 1892.
4. The names, rank and services of the medical officers of the Confederate Army and Navy. The nature, and, to a certain extent, the results of these labors will be illustrated by the following facts and correspondence:

STATE OF ALABAMA.

Official communications were addressed to the Governor of Alabama in 1890 and 1891 by the Surgeon-General, United Confederate Veterans, but up to the present date, February, 1892, no reply has been received.

STATE OF ARKANSAS.

EXECUTIVE OFFICE, LITTLE ROCK,

Professor JOSEPH JONES, M. D., New Orleans, La.:

DEAR SIR--Yours of some time since, received, and answer held with view of securing at least some of the information sought, but my time has been so occupied with official duties that I have been unable to get information. Besides this there are no records, official, in any of the State departments from which such information can be had, hence I can not comply with your request.        We are making an effort to organize the ex-Confederates in this State, and hope to succeed. We have raised a fund and will soon have a home at our capital, so as to be able to support such as are not able to support themselves.

Very truly yours,JAMES P. EAGLE.

STATE OF FLORIDA.

TALLAHASSEE, May 19, 1890.

Dr. JOSEPH JONES, Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans:

SIR--Replying to yours of the 9th ultimo to the governor, I have the honor to report as follows, in reply to your queries:
1. Number of troops furnished to the Confederates States army from Florida about fifteen thousand.
2. Number of killed? I have no record showing and no means of estimating.
3. Number of wounded? I have no record showing and no means of estimating.
4. Number of deaths from wounds and disease? No record, etc.
5. Number of survivors? No means of estimating.
6. Amount appropriated for survivors to the present time? $120,934
7. Name, etc., of hospitals and other institutions for the care of the survivors? None.
8. Detailed statement of moneys expended for the relief of the survivors, maimed and disabled?
During the year 1885 there was expended in pensions, $1,777.50.
During the year 1886 there was expended in pensions, $7,653.80.
During the year 1887 there was expended in pensions, $9,368.83.
During the year 1888 there was expended in pensions, $32,647.76.
During the year 1889 there was expended in pensions, $34,486.38.
For the year 1890 there has been appropriated $35,000.
In the year 1885 there were fifty-eight pensioners, receiving pensions at the rate of $5.00 per month.
In the year 1886 there were one hundred pensioners at the same rate. In the year 1887 the rate was increased to $8.00 per month, and the restriction that the pension must be necessary to support and maintenance was removed. Under this law the number of pensions for the year 1887 increased to one hundred and sixty-seven, and by December, 1888, to three hundred and eighteen, which number had increased July l, 1889, when the law was again changed, to three hundred and eighty-four. The present law grades the pensions according to the disability and restricts it to those who are in need and unable to earn a livelihood. Under this law the pension roll has been reduced to two hundred and eighteen.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,D. LANG, Adjutant-General.

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TALLAHASSEE, August 29, 1891.

Dr. JOSEPH JONES, Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans:

SIR--Replying to yours of the 17th inst., to the governor, I can only make a repetition of my former letter of May 19, 1890, to you on the same subject, to-wit:
1. The number of troops furnished the Confederate States, from Florida, was about fifteen thousand, comprising eleven regiments, and several independent corps of infantry, two regiments of cavalry, and six batteries of artillery. There are no records of these organizations extant, except an abstract of the muster-rolls of the first eight regiments of infantry, and the two cavalry regiments, with the several independent companies, subsequently forming the other three regiments of infantry.
2. There is absolutely nothing to show the number of killed, wounded, or died of disease.
3. There is no roster of the medical staff, but from personal recollection the writer can give the following names:
Dr. Thomas M. Palmer, Surgeon Second Florida regiment, from May --, 1861, till August, --, 1862, when Florida hospital was organized, and he made chief surgeon at Richmond, Virginia. Present address, Monticello, Florida.
Dr. Carey Gamble, surgeon of the First regiment, from April 3, 1861, and afterwards, of the Florida brigade, in the Army of Tennessee; now resides in Baltimore.
Dr. J. D. Godfrey, surgeon Fifth regiment, April, 1862; now resides in Jasper, Florida.
Dr. Thomas P. Gary, surgeon Seventh Florida regiment, Died at Ocala, Florida, 1891.
Dr. Richard P. Daniel, surgeon Eight regiment, May, 1862, till April 9, 1865; now resides in Jacksonville, Florida.
Dr. ---- Hooper, assistant-surgeon Eight regiment; killed at Fredericksburg, Virginia, in line of duty, December 12, 1863.
Dr. Theophilus West, assistant-surgeon Eight regiment, from December 12, 1863, till April 9, 1865; address, Marianna, Florida.
Dr. R. W. B. Hargis, surgeon First regiment; address, Pensacola, Florida.
Dr. J. H. Randolph, surgeon department of Florida; present address, Tallahassee, Florida.
Dr. G. E. Hawes, surgeon Second regiment; present address, Palatka, Florida.
4. Acts passed by Florida Legislature, for aid of Confederate soldiers, see inclosed copies of same.
5. There are no soldiers' homes, hospitals, or other places of refuge for old soldiers in Florida. 6. Have not complete records, and can not furnish copies of such as there are, not being in print.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,D. LANG, Adjutant-General of Florida.

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(CHAPTER 3681, NO. 15)

AN ACT to provide an Annuity for Disabled soldiers and Sailors of the State of Florida.

SECTION I. That any person who enlisted in the military or naval service of the Confederate States, or of this State, during the civil war between the States of the United States, who was a citizen of this State, at the time of enlistment, or who was a citizen of this State on January 1, 1875, who lost a limb or limbs while engaged in said military or naval service, occasioned by reason of such military or naval service, or who may thus have received wounds or injuries which afterward caused the loss of a limb or limbs, or who may have been permanently injured by wounds or disease contracted while in said service, and who may be a citizen of this State at the time of making application for the benefits herein provided for, shall be entitled to receive, per annum, in quarterly payments, the following allowance, or pay, to-wit: For total loss of sight, one hundred and fifty dollars; for total loss of one eye, thirty dollars; for total loss of hearing, thirty dollars; for loss of a foot or loss of a leg, one hundred dollars; for loss of all of a hand or loss of (an) arm, one hundred dollars; for loss of both hands or both arms, one hundred and fifty dollars; for loss of both feet or both legs, one hundred and fifty dollars; for loss of one hand or foot, and one arm or leg by same person, one hundred and fifty dollars; for permanent injuries from wounds whereby a leg is rendered substantially and essentially useless, ninety dollars; for permanent injuries from wounds whereby an arm is rendered substantially and essentially useless, ninety dollars; for other permanent injuries from wounds or diseases contracted during the service and while in line of duty as a soldier (or sailor) whereby the person injured or diseased has been rendered practically incompetent to perform ordinary manual avocations of life, ninety-six dollars. The benefits of this section shall inure to the widow of any soldier or sailor who was receiving a pension under the provisions of this act at the time of his death, which pension shall continue during such widowhood.
SEC. 2. That before any person shall be entitled to any of the benefits of this act, he shall make oath before some person authorized to administer oaths, stating in what company, regiment and brigade he was serving when the loss was sustained or injury received, and when it was lost or received, or when and where he contracted the disease which caused the amputation or loss of his limb or limbs, or produced the permanent disability claimed to exist.
SEC. 4. The widow of any soldier or sailor killed, or who shall have since died of wounds received while in the line of duty during the civil war between the States, who has since remained unmarried, shall receive a pension of one hundred and fifty dollars per annum during such widowhood. Proof of such death and continued widowhood shall be made as in other cases herein provided.
SEC. 5. That the benefits of this act shall accrue to the Florida State troops who may be disabled in line of duty when called into service by the authorities of this State. SEC. 7. This act shall be in force from and after its passage and approval by the governor.

Approved June 8, 1889.

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STATE OF GEORGIA.

We extract the following from the "Report of Madison Bell, Comptroller-General of the State of Georgia, covering the period from August 11, 1868, to January 1, 1869, submitted to His Excellency, Rufus B. Bullock, the Governor, January 12, 1869:"

MAIMED SOLDIERS.

By section 28, appropriation act of March, 1886, the sum of $20,000 was appropriated to furnish artificial limbs to indigent maimed soldiers; and by section 27 of the appropriation act of December, 1866, the further sum of $30,000 was appropriated for the same purpose. By reference to the books kept by my predecessors, I find that the first-named sum has been about exhausted, and that something over $12,000 of the second appropriation has been drawn. By a resolution of the General Assembly, maimed soldiers, under certain circumstances, were allowed to draw from the treasury the value of an artificial limb in cases where the stump was so short that such limb could not be fitted to it, and several applications of this kind have been presented to me since being in charge of the Comptroller's office, and I have been somewhat perplexed in determining what was the proper course to pursue. Although the appropriation has not been exhausted, and this unfortunate class of our fellow-citizens has commanded my deepest sympathy, yet I have, from a stern sense of official duty, persistently refused to approve any of these claims.

AUGUSTA, GEORGIA,

MY DEAR BROTHER--I am this morning in receipt of your letter of the 3d instant, and I regret it is not in my power to furnish accurate answers to your leading inquiries. General Marcus J. Wright, of the War Record Office, War Department, Washington, D. C., will, in my judgment, be best qualified to impart the desired information. All the captured Confederate records are accessible to him. He is much interested in all matters appertaining to Confederate affairs, having been a brigadier-general in Confederate service, and can, without doubt, turn at once to documents on file in the department which will satisfy your inquiries. I believe he will deem it a pleasure to respond, as fully as his leisure will permit, to your inquiries.
I enclose a copy of the latest act passed by the Legislature of Georgia providing for the relief of disabled Confederate soldiers. The provision is not as ample as it should be, but it is better than nothing, and ministers measurably to the comfort of those who are entitled to every consideration. By public benefaction Georgia has established no hospital or home for the shelter of her disabled Confederate soldiers, but such an institution is now being builded near Atlanta with funds privately contributed by patriotic citizens of the State. When that institution is fairly under way, it is hoped that the General Assembly may be induced to receive it as a public institution, to recognize it as a necessary charity, and to make provision for its proper sustentation.

Your affectionate brother,CHARLES C. JONES, Jr.

P.O. Box 1600, New Orleans, La.

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APPROPRIATING ALLOWANCES FOR MAIMED CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS.

(No. 48.)

AN ACT to amend an act, approved October 24, 1887, entitled "An act to carry into effect the last clause of article 7, section 1, paragraph 1, of the Constitution of 1877 and the amendments thereto."
SECTION I. That the act approved October, 24, 1887, entitled "An act to carry into effect the last clause of article 7, section I, paragraph 1, of the Constitution of 1877, as amended by vote of the people October, 1886," be, and the same is hereby, amended by striking therefrom the first section of said act, and inserting in lieu thereof the following, to-wit: "That any person who enlisted in the military service of the Confederate States, or of this State, during the civil war between the States of the United States, who was a citizen of this State on the 26th day of October 1886, who lost a limb or limbs while engaged in said military service, occasioned by reason of such military service, or who may have thus received wounds or injuries which afterward caused the loss of a limb or limbs," or who may have been permanently injured while in said service, and who may be a citizen of this State at the time of making application for the benefits herein provided for, shall be entitled to receive, once a year, the following allowances or pay for the purposes expressed in article 7, section 1, paragraph 1 (and the amendment thereto), of the Constitution of 1877, to wit:
For total loss of sight, one hundred and fifty dollars.
For total loss of sight of one eye, thirty dollars.
For total loss of hearing, thirty dollars.
For loss of all of a foot or loss of leg, one hundred dollars.
For loss of all of a hand or loss of arm, one hundred dollars.
For loss of both hands or both arms, one hundred and fifty dollars.
For loss of both feet or both legs, one hundred and fifty dollars.
For the loss of one hand or foot, and one arm or leg by same person, one hundred and fifty dollars.
For permanent injuries from wounds whereby a leg is rendered substantially and essentially useless, fifty dollars.
For permanent injuries from wounds whereby an arm is rendered substantially and essentially useless, fifty dollars.
For the loss of one finger or one toe, five dollars.
For the loss of two fingers or two toes, ten dollars.
For the loss of three fingers or three toes, fifteen dollars.
For the loss of four fingers or four toes, twenty dollars.
For the loss of four fingers and thumb, or five toes, twenty-five dollars.
For other permanent injury from wounds or disease, contracted during the service, and while in line of duty as a soldier, whereby the person injured or diseased has been rendered practically incompetent to perform the ordinary manual avocations of life, fifty dollars.
The applicant shall also procure the sworn statements of two reputable physicians of his own country, showing precisely how he has been wounded and the extent of the disability resulting from the wound or injury or disease described. All of said affidavits shall be certified to be genuine by the Ordinary of the county where made, and he shall in his certificate state that all the witnesses who testily to applicants' proofs are persons of respectability and good reputation, and that their statements are worthy of belief, and also that the attesting officer or officers are duly authorized to attest said proofs and that their signatures thereto are genuine.
SEC. IV. That said act be further amended by adding: That the beneficiaries under the Acts of 1879 and the acts amendatory thereof, granting allowances to ex-Confederate soldiers who lost a limb or limbs in the service, shall be entitled to the benefits of this act, at the time the next payments are made to other disabled beneficiaries under the Act of 1887. And the sum necessary to make the payments provided by this act is hereby appropriated out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated.
SEC. V. That all laws and parts of (*) laws in conflict with this act be and the same are hereby repealed.

Approved December 24, 1888.

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ATLANTA, GA, April 14, 1890.

JOS. JONES, M. D., Surgeon-General, &c:

DEAR SIR--As early as possible the information you ask for will be obtained and forwarded.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,CLEMENT A. EVANS.


EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,
ATLANTA, GA.,


DEAR SIR--Your letter making inquiry about Confederate veterans has been received. It will be referred to the adjutant-general of the State, Captain Kell, with the request that he reply to it as soon as possible.

Very truly, etc.,
W. J. NORTHEN,

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ADJUTANT-GENERALS' OFFICE,
ATLANTA, GA.,


DEAR SIR--Your communication of the 17th inst., headed official business, addressed to His Excellency, W. J, Northen, governor of Georgia, has been placed upon my desk. I at once called upon the governor, and informed him that while much of the information desired in your communication might be obtained by careful research, there was no clerical help in my office, and it was just impossible for me to furnish it. The governor desires me to communicate to you the above information. Regretting that he can not furnish you with the information requested.

With sincere regard, your obedient servant,
JOHN MCINTOSH KELL,Adjutant-Inspector-General.


STATE OF KENTUCKY.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,
FRANKFORT,

New Orleans, La.:

DEAR SIR--In answer to yours of the 9th inst., as to records of Confederate soldiers of Kentucky, allow me to refer you to General Marcus J. Wright, Washington, D. C. He has in charge the war papers of the Confederacy, and he, if anybody, can give the desired information.

Respectfully,
ED. PORTER THOMPSON,Private Secretary to Governor.

P. S.--I can, however, answer as to the 6th, 7th, and 8th. No provision whatever is made by the State for her Confederate soldiers.

E. P. T.

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STATE OF LOUISIANA.

BATON ROUGE, LA.,

Dr. JOSEPH JONES, New Orleans, La.:

MY DEAR DOCTOR--Being desirous of obtaining the information which you are seeking and which you have requested me to obtain for you, I believe I have obtained the desired information from my last report as secretary of State, from page 107 to page 133 inclusive. I have, this day, mailed a copy to you.
I have also obtained from the adjutant-general's office his last report, which contains the appropriations made by the legislature for wounded and disabled soldiers, as well as to soldiers' home. I have also this day mailed a copy to you.
I have also obtained from the register of the State land office that 103 wounded and disabled soldiers have obtained land warrants under the provisions of Act No. 96, of 1884, and have actually located each 160 acres of land. The widows of Confederate soldiers who are in indigent circumstances are also entitled to the benefits of said act.
There are also, up to date, 564 Confederate soldiers who have obtained land warrants under Act No. 116 of 1886, entitling them to 160 acres of land. I would refer you particularly to the provisions of the last act. You can obtain a copy from the State Library. In relation to the names of surgeons who served in the Confederate army, I have been informed that so far as the Army of Northern Virginia, you can have the names of the officers at New Orleans. There has been no record kept of the Army of Tennessee, unless Colonel A. J. Lewis can inform you.

I am, very truly, your obedient servant and friend,OSCAR AROYO. The total original enlistments were:

LOUISIANA TROOPS MUSTERED INTO THE PROVISIONAL CONFEDERATE STATES ARMY.

Total original enrolment of infantry 36,243
Total original enrolment of artillery 4,024
Total original enrolment of cavalry 10,056
Total original enrolment of sappers and miners 276
Total original enrolment of engineers 212
Total original enrolment of signal corps 76
Total original enrolment of New Orleans State Guard 4,933
Grand total 55,820
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REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF LOUISIANA.

Artificial Limbs.

Act 69, approved April 6, 1880, provides substantial artificial limbs for the who lost a limb or limbs in the military service of the Confederate States, and the adjutant-general is furnished with an official list of those entitled to the benefits of this act, which list serves them as a guide as to the number and kind of artificial limbs to be supplied by the State. 
Section 5 of that act provides for the payment of the pro portion of the appropriation of $12,000 for the year 1880, and of $8,000 for the year 1881; in case the beneficiaries take oath before the clerk of the district court of their parish, stating in their affidavits that they do not believe that the style of artificial limb contracted for by the adjutant-general would be of any practical use to them; in that case the adjutant-general is instructed to approve and indorse on the affidavits the contract price of the artificial limb to which the beneficiaries would be entitled under this act, which affidavits, so indorsed and approved, shall be the voucher of the auditor of public accounts for his warrant on the State treasurer in favor of the beneficiary.
By a latter resolution of the House of Representatives, under date of April 15, 1880, the adjutant-general is authorized and empowered to supplement the list of disabled soldiers, adopted and forwarded to him by the house, by the addition of the names of those at this time who may forward or carry to him an affidavit made before the clerk of their parish that they lost a limb or limbs in the service of the Confederate States, approved by either of their representatives or senators, or by the addition of names of persons forwarded to him by either the Louisiana Division of Army of Northern Virginia, or Louisiana Division of Army of Tennessee. Under this act 69, and under the resolution of the house referred to, the following artificial limbs are accounted for:
Appropriation for 1880 $12,000
Appropriation for 1881 $8,000
Act 72, approved July 1, 1882, directs that the unexpended balances appropriated by Act No. 69 of 1880, be transferred to and appropriated out of the general fund of 1882 and 1883, to be paid out according to provisions and regulations of Act 69 of 1880.
For artificial limbs in 1882 $1,300
For repairs of same in 1882 $1,000
For artificial limbs in 1883 $1,300
For repairs of same in 1883 $1,071
Under Act 72, the following artificial limbs and repairs to same have been furnished upon proper affidavits on file in this office:
Appropriation for 1882 $2,300
Appropriation for 1883 $2,371


Act 46, approved July 5, 1884, appropriated eight thousand dollars out of the general fund of 1884, and eight thousand dollars out of the general fund of 1885, or so much thereof as may be necessary to supply and keep supplied with substantial artificial limbs the citizens of this State who lost a limb or limbs in the military service of the Confederate States.
Section 2 of this act provides that the list of those entitled to the benefits of the act, now on file in the adjutant-general's office of this State, which may be amended by the adjutant-general by adding the names of other soldiers upon proper proof furnished him, or by striking off the names of those who have died, or who may hereafter die, shall be his guide as to the number and kinds of artificial limbs to be supplied by the State.
Section 3 of the same act authorizes the adjutant-general of the State, with the governor's approval, to contract for the manufacture of the artificial limbs required.
The remaining sections of Act 46 provide that the affidavits or certificates for relief, under this bill, be countersigned by the proper officer of the association of the Army of Northern Virginia or the association of the Army of Tennessee. That those who received artificial limbs or the value of the same in warrants from the State in 1880, are entitled to the benefits of this act in 1884, and those who were supplied in 1881 to the benefits of this act in 1885. That all warrants issued under the same act are made receivable for any licenses or taxes due and payable to the general fund for the year in which they are issued.
{|cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="182" border="1" |width="126"|Appropriation for 1884 |width="39"|$8,000 |- |width="126"|Appropriation for 1885 |width="39"|$8,000 |} Act 115, approved July 8, 1886, directs that the unexpended balances, amounting to thirty-seven hundred and sixty-three dollars, be transferred to and re-appropriated out of the general fund of 1886, 1887. and 1888, to be paid out according to provisions and regulations of Act 46, as follows:

For artificial limbs and repairs of same in 1886 $1,500
For artificial limbs and repairs of same in 1887 $1,500
For artificial limbs and repairs of same in 1888 $763
$3,763


{|cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="186" border="1" |width="130"|Appropriation for 1886 |width="39"|$1,500 |- |width="130"|Appropriation for 1887 |width="39"|$1,500 |} Act 32, approved June 29, 1888, directs that the unexpended balances, amounting to eight hundred and forty-five dollars and ninety-one cents, appropriated by Act 115, Acts of 1886, be transferred to and appropriated out of the general fund of 1888, to supply the who lost a limb or limbs in the military service of the Confederate States, with substantial artificial limbs, and whose disabilities are such, through wounds, surgical operations, or injuries received in the line of duty as soldiers in the service of the Confederate States. that an artificial limb would be of no practical use, may have the benefit of the share of this appropriation, as hereinafter provided. For the loss of the use of a leg, eighty dollars; for the loss of the use of an arm, sixty-five dollars; for the loss of the sight of an eve, sixty-five dollars; for the loss of hearing in one ear, twenty dollars; for the loss of the voice, eighty dollars; for the paralysis of any portion of the body, causing disability, sixty-five dollars. All such cases of disability to be established by the certificate of two medical practitioners of good standing in the parish or district where the beneficiary resides; all applications for relief to be approved by the proper officer of the association of the Army of Northern Virginia, or the Army of Tennessee; that all warrants issued under Act 32 are made receivable for any licenses or taxes due and payable to the general fund of the year in which they are issued.

Appropriation for 1888 $845.91
Act 50, approved July 10, 1888, appropriates six thousand dollars out of the general fund for and to supply and keep supplied with substantial artificial limbs the who lost a limb or limbs in the military service of the Confederate States, under provisions similar to those expressed in Act 69 of 1880 and Act 46 of 1884.
Appropriation for 1888 $6,000
The artificial limbs manufactured and furnished by Mr. A. McDermott, of New Orleans, under Acts 69 and 72, for the years 1880, 1881, 1882, and 1883, also under Acts 36 and 115, for the years 1884, 1885, 1886, and 1887, having proved satisfactory in every respect, the contract for artificial limbs required by the State of Louisiana to supply its citizens was, for the fifth time, awarded him, under Act 50, for the years 1888 and 1889.
The prices specified in the contract are as follows:
Artificial legs $80
Repairs to an artificial leg $25
Artificial arms $65
Repairs to an artificial arm $15
All estimated for cash or its equivalent in warrants. The fluctuations in these warrants for the past nine years have been from 60 to 96 cents.

SOLDIERS' HOME.

The General Assembly has made the following appropriations for founding and maintaining the "Louisiana Soldiers' Home," established in 1883, on Bayou St. John, near the bridge at the end of Esplanade street, New Orleans:
Out of the revenues of 1883 $2,500
Out of the revenues of 1884 $2,500
For the year ending June 30, 1885 $10,000
For the year ending June 30, 1886 $10,000
For the year ending June 30, 1887 $7,500
For the year ending June 30, 1888 $7,500
For the year ending June 30, 1889 $7,500
For the year ending June 30, 1890 $7,500
$55,000
To the above amount in State warrants may be added seven thousand dollars in cash, received from the two divisions of Louisiana-Confederate Veterans of the Army of Northern Virginia and Army of Tennessee, being the amount realized from the two days' sham battles and entertainments given at the Fair Grounds, New Orleans, in September, 1883.
The Soldiers' Home now affords comfortable quarters, clothing and subsistence to fifty-one Confederate veterans, all disabled from injuries, wounds or loss of limbs in line of duty. To fully develop and carry out the purposes intended, and to establish on a firm basis the "Louisiana Soldiers' Home," in which all classes are interested, it is hoped that the General Assembly will continue the appropriations on a more liberal scale, for the extention and maintenance of this humane and deserving institution.

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STATE OF MARYLAND.

Respectfully returned, and attention invited to remarks of General Johnson. No organizations of Confederate troops were furnished by the State, which was subjugated by the United States; but many thousands of her citizens went to the aid of the Confederate States, and served in most of them in their commands to the close of the civil war. (?)
Question No. 4. None. Question No. 5. By act of the legislature a piece of property known as Pikesville Arsenal has been donated for a Confederate home, and now shelters some fifty or more veterans.

J. HOWARD,

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STATE OF MISSISSIPPI.

Official inquiries were addressed to the governor of Mississippi in 1890 and 1891.        No replies have been received to the respectful inquiries of the Surgeon. General United Confederate Veterans, and in the absence of all information from Mississippi, we present with pleasure, for the consideration of the United Confederate Veterans, the following valuable communication from General Allen Thomas, who served with distinguished gallantry at the siege of Vicksburg:

RUNNYMEADE, October 21, 1891.

Dr. JOSEPH JONES, Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans:

MY DEAR DOCTOR--Your favor of September, after some delay in finding me, was received, I bare been trying to refresh my memory with reference to your inquiries, but it has been so much weakened by time and trouble that I find I am not able to give you definitely the information you desire.
To your first inquiry: "Names of the medical officers in charge of the Confederate sick and wounded during the siege of Vicksburg, name also of Medical Director?"--
I would say that Dr. Winn, of Holmesville, Avoyelles parish, was my regimental surgeon. Dr. Pierce was his assistant. Dr. Raoul Percy was also on duty; as was Dr. Walker in charge of the First Louisiana Heavy Artillery (Fuller's command). As well as I recollect; Dr. Balfour was Medical Director, and Dr. Burchel, if I mistake not, was in charge of the hospital for the sick and wounded. Of course there were many other members of the medical profession who participated in the siege, but I do not recollect their names,
2. Number of Confederates killed and wounded during the siege of Vicksburg?
Ans. I do not know the exact number, but I can approximate. I understood at headquarters at the commencement of the siege, that we had seventeen thousand men of all arms of the service; there was about eleven thousand paroled. Some time before the surrender, General Pemberton called his general officers together to ascertain if it were possible to cut our way out. This was found to be utterly impracticable. There were but eleven thousand men of all arms of the service fit for duty. And these were not in a condition to sustain continued exertions. We had no horses for either cavalry or artillery. Of course I cannot say positively the number of men paroled, but I heard it frequently stated that it was eleven thousand, leaving six thousand unaccounted for. In my opinion the great majority of these were killed or wounded.
3. Number of Confederate troops (officers and men sick and wounded) surrendered at Vicksburg?
Ans. About eleven thousand.
4. What was the condition, physical and moral, of the Confederate troops at the time of surrender; could the struggle have been protracted much longer?
Ans. The Confederate troops suffered greatly for want of proper provisions, for some time before the end of the siege. A small cup of cornmeal or rice was a day's rations, and the men, from forty-eight days' of service in open trenches, exposed to torrid sun and all weather, unable to move from their positions, without being exposed to a storm of shot and shell, were necessarily much worn and emaciated; so apparent was this, that when I marched my brigade by a group of Federal officers, one of them exclaimed in my hearing, "Great God, can it be possible that these men held us in check for so long a time." The morale of the men was excellent. They could not have been driven; they might have been overwhelmed, but had no thought, so far as I could observe, of retreat or surrender. It would have been impossible for them to have continued the struggle much longer, as it was beyond the endurance of human nature.
5. Are there any authentic accounts of the siege of Vicksburg extant. Ans. None that I know of. The late Jefferson Davis once asked me to write a history of the siege. I contemplated doing so, but was told that Colonel McCardle, of General Pemberton's staff, was about to publish such a work, which induced me to abandon it. Regretting that I am unable to give you more accurate dates.

I am, with the highest esteem, most truly yours.ALLEN THOMAS.

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STATE OF MISSOURI.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,
CITY OF JEFFERSON,


DEAR SIR--I am in receipt of yours of the 9th instant, requesting me to furnish your association data as to the number of troops furnished the Confederate States army by the State of Missouri, etc., and have to reply that there are no records at the capital from which to furnish the information desired. There is an ex-Confederate association in this State, Mr. James Bannerman, Southern hotel, St Louis, being the president thereof, and it is possible that by communicating with him you may be able to ascertain what you desire to know. Regretting my inability to comply with your courteous request, I am

Yours very respectfully,
DAVID R. FRANCIS,

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,
CITY OF JEFFERSON,

Prof. JOSEPH JONES, M. D.,Box 1600, New Orleans, La.:

DEAR SIR--I am in receipt of yours of the 17th, asking information concerning the Missouri troops in the Confederate army, and also requesting detailed statement concerning the relations between Missouri and the Confederacy, which would require weeks of labor to prepare, if they could be furnished at all. I have referred that portion of your letter concerning the number of troops from Missouri in the Confederate service to the Adjutant-General's department, of which General Joseph A. Wickham is the head, and have asked the Secretary of State, Captain A. A. Lesueur, who commanded Lesueur's battery in the Confederate service, to make reply to your request for copies of State papers relating to the civil war.

Respectfully,DAVID R. FRANCIS.

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DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
CITY OF JEFFERSON, MO.,

Dr. JOSEPH JONES, New Orleans:

DEAR SIR--Questions four, five and six of your letter to Governor Francis have been referred to me for reply, and in response would say:
1. This State has passed no law to pension or for the relief of disabled and indigent Confederate soldiers.
2. There is a home for Confederate soldiers at Higginsville, this State, which was established and is being sustained by private contributions, and at which all worthy and needy Missouri ex-Confederates will be received and cared for. 3. In order to comply with your request for "State papers, acts, etc., relating to the civil war," I would be compelled to send you copies of Session Acts, proceedings of constitutional conventions, etc., which would make a package of considerable size, and not knowing whether you would be willing to pay necessary freight or express charges, I thought best to write you for information on that point. If you wish me to send them, please say whether by freight or express.

A. A. LESUEUR, Secretary of State.

ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE.
CITY OF JEFFERSON,

Governor City:

DEAR SIR--I have the honor to return the enclosed letter, with the information that there is no data on file in this office which will enable me to reply to the questions asked. I would suggest, that perhaps the Southern Historical Society could come nearer furnishing the information asked for than any one, unless it be General Harding.

Very respectfully,
J. A. WICKHAM, Adjutant General.

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To General Harding:

Can you reply?

D. R. F. Governor.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,
CITY OF JEFFERSON,

JOSEPH JONES, M. D.,156 Washington Avenue, New Orleans, La.:

DEAR SIR--In further answer of yours of the 17th, I enclose communications from the Department of the Adjutant-General and from General James Harding, who was a brigadier in the Confederate service. You will observe therefrom that it is impossible to give you definite information on the points mentioned in your letter. I would suggest that you correspond with the Southern Historical Society in the city of St. Louis. Captain Lesueur informs me that he has replied to the queries to which he could give satisfactory answers.

Respectfully,
DAVID R. FRANCIS.

RAILROAD AND WAREHOUSE DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF COMMISSIONERS,
CITY OF JEFFERSON,

Hon. DAVID R. FRANCIS, Governor of Missouri:

GOVERNOR--Herewith I have the honor to return papers referred to me by you this date.
I believe it to be impossible to give the information desired by Surgeon-General Jones, with any degree of accuracy. There are no records in this State from which it can be obtained, and it is very doubtful if the records of the Confederate war department will furnish it. As regards question No. I, the information must be very inaccurate, as Senator Cockrell, in his address at Kansas City a few days since, stated that Missouri furnished more men to the Confederate service than any State, except one. I have given this question some attention, and am confident that twenty-five thousand will include every man and boy in the Confederate service from this State. If the Senator is right, I am out of the way only about sixty thousand!

Very respectfully,JAMES HARDING.

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STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,
RALEIGH, A

Prof. JOSEPH JONES, M. D.,P. O. Box 1600, New Orleans, La.:

DEAR SIR--I am instructed by the governor to acknowledge the receipt of yours of the 17th inst., asking for information in regard to the troops furnished by the State of North Carolina during the Civil War, 1861 to 1865.        The information desired is not in this office, consequently cannot be furnished by the governor. He has referred your letter to the adjutant-general of North Carolina, with request that he furnish you such information as he has in his department.

Very truly yours,S. F. TELFAIR, Private Secretary.


SOUTH CAROLINA.

The following correspondence and documents embrace the sum of our present knowledge, with reference to the Confederate veterans and disabled soldiers of 1861-1865 in the State of South Carolina:

EXECUTIVE CHAMBER,
COLUMBIA. S. C.,

Prof. JOSEPH JONES, M. D.,Box 1600, New Orleans, La.:

DEAR SIR--The governor has received yours of the 9th inst., and directs me to inform you that he will take immediate steps to procure as much of the information you desire as can possibly be obtained.

Very respectfully,
W. ELLIOTT GONZALES,Private Secretary.

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR-GENERAL,
COLUMBIA, S. C.,

Surgeon General JONES, New Orleans, La.:

SIR--Herewith I send you some pamphlets relating to late war. The rolls of companies from this State have never been completed, some forty not having yet come in, as per report of 1886.
The number estimated to have been furnished by this State is about sixty thousand, of whom it is believed, from careful estimates, some twelve thousand were killed or died. The rolls received have mainly been made from memory, hence are far from being correct, though some are fairly so. General McCrady has kindly furnished the four pamphlets. I am very sorry I cannot give you more reliable It is very doubtful if legislature will ever have the rolls obtained put in book-form.

Very respectfully,
M. L. BONHAM, Jr., A

Jno. Scofin,

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STATE OF TENNESSEE.

[Dictated.]

EXECUTIVE OFFICE,
NASHVILLE, TENN.,

Hon. JOSEPH JONES, Surgeon-General, etc.,156 Washington ave., New Orleans:

DEAR SIR--In response to the request of your letter of recent date, I have endeavored to collect the information sought, and will communicate it to you as soon as I am able to obtain it.

Very respectfully,ROBT. L. TAYLOR.

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STATE OF TEXAS.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
AUSTIN,

Prof. JOSEPH JONES, Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans, New Orleans, La.:

SIR,--Your communication of 9th ult., to His Excellency, Governor Ross, has been referred to this office. In reply, I would state that no records, rolls, or papers of any kind, relating to the Texas soldiery in the Confederate Army, can be found here, and, therefore, I have no means of supplying the desired information.        As to indigent or helpless Confederates, private enterprise and humanity have established a "Home" in this city for Confederates, but the State is constitutionally unable to make direct appropriations of money to help said home, but has given the rent from a large public building to this purpose, running from fifteen hundred to two thousand annually in value.

Respectfully,W. H KING, Adjutant-General

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STATE OF VIRGINIA.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
RICHMOND, VA.,


SIR--You letter of the 17th inst. to Governor McKinney, requesting information as to the number of troops from Virginia in the Confederate armies; character of their organizations; numbers killed, wounded, died of disease, deserted; roster of medical officers, etc., etc., has been referred to me for reply. I regret extremely to have to say that it is not possible to give this information. In the great fire that attended the evacuation of this city by the Confederate forces, April 3, 1865, the office of the adjutant-general, with its entire contents, was destroyed. Whatever records or files it contained capable of throwing light on the subject of your inquiries, were thus lost forever. Of course, also, all headquarters' records and papers with our armies in the field were turned over to United States officers, to whom they surrendered, and are now in Washington.        There is in this State one Soldiers' Home for disabled Confederates. It is located in the suburbs of Richmond, and affords accommodations to about one hundred and thirty inmates. The State appropriates ten thousand dollars a year to their maintenance. Besides, some seventy thousand dollars a year are appropriated for the relief of Confederate veterans disabled by wounds received in service. There are a number of Confederate camps in various parts of the State, the principal one being R. E. Lee Camp, in this city, by which maintenance is given to needy veterans.

Very respectfully,JAS. McDONALD, Adjutant-General.

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Whilst the preceding correspondence has yielded far less definite information than was desired, with reference to the forces engaged or the losses incurred by the individual Confederate States during the conflict of 1861-1865, at the same time it is evident that several of the Southern States have acknowledged, in a measure at least, their obligations to assist the disabled and destitute Confederate veterans. Foremost amongst the Southern States stand Florida, Louisiana and Georgia in their devotion to their sons who rallied to their defence in the hour of bloody and desolating war. However insignificant the assistance tendered the disabled Confederate soldiers, in comparison with the great resources of the States formerly composing the let us hope for better, nobler and more generous assistance for the disabled and impoverished Confederate soldiers, and the forlorn and struggling widows of those who yielded up their lives to a just and righteous sense of duty to their native States.

With great respect, General,

I have the honor to remain
Your obedient servant,
JOSEPH JONES, M. D., Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans.

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